2011 Slide Set VI Spr11

2011 Slide Set VI Spr11 - Next up in UNIT II: Patterns of...

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Unformatted text preview: Next up in UNIT II: Patterns of Inheritance How are genes and the traits for which they code passed along from parents to offspring? Father and son sisters brothers twins Family Mom and offspring SLIDE SET VI Outline I. Mendel - A New Theory of Inheritance A. Who was Mendel? B. What did Mendel know? C. Plant breeding II. Mendel's work A. Monohybrid cross B. Interpretation in modern terms C. Quantitative results D. The dihybrid cross E. Summary of Mendel's Rules III. Probability Theory and Patterns of Inheritance A. Definitions B. Rules for probability C. Application to the dihybrid cross SLIDE SET VI OUTLINE (contd.) IV. Extensions of (and exceptions to) Mendels rules A. Partial dominance 1. incomplete dominance 2. co-dominance B. More than 2 possible alleles at a locus 1. human ABO blood groups C. Pleiotropy D. Polygenic inheritance 1. epistasis 2. human skin color 3. human eye color The Homunculus (Preformationism) vs. Pangenesis How are traits pased on from parents to offspring? vs. blending inheritance Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)- an Austrian monk Common pea plant ( Pisum sativum ) http://anthro.palomar.edu/mendel/mendel_1.htm Why was he smart to use pea plants to study inheritance? Fig. 14.2 How controlled plant breeding is accomplished. Flowers hold a plants reproductive organs:- male organs are the STAMENS (make pollen)- female organ is the OVARY at the base of the sticky pistil REASONS FOR MENDELS SUCCESS- studied several different plant characteristics (or traits) (Table 14.1)- studied either-or traits that each had 2 distinct versions (alleles) (e.g. white flowers or purple flowers)- started simple: by studying one trait at a time 4. Made sure his starting plants were true breeding (i.e., when self- fertilized, ONLY the same parental trait showed up in offspring generation after generation) 1. Used an organism (pea plant) that:- can both self and cross- fertilize- produces MANY offspring (= seeds)- has a relatively short generation time 2. Subjected data to quantitative analysis 3. Used an organized, systematic (i.e., scientific) approach: See Table 14.1 seven of Mendels plant traits Fig 14.3 Mendels series of crosses: a monohybrid cross 705 purple 224 white Mendel self- fertilized the F 1 plants to generate the F 2 F 1 = first filial generation (offspring) *100% purple (where did the white flower info go?) Mendel found the same pattern for all seven characteristics he studied: 1. Only one of two possible forms for a trait showed up in the first generation (F 1 ) when the parents were true breeding for 2 different forms of a trait. 2. The form of the trait not seen in the first generation re-appeared in the second generation (F 2 ), and always in a 3:1 ratio . Mendels explanation for his observed results: 1. Each characteristic (trait) is controlled by a separate factor (= a gene ), and there are 2 copies or forms (= allele ) for each gene in each plant.for each gene in each plant....
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This document was uploaded on 11/03/2011 for the course BIO bsc2011 at FSU.

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2011 Slide Set VI Spr11 - Next up in UNIT II: Patterns of...

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