2011 SLIDE SET IX Spr11

2011 SLIDE SET IX Spr11 - UNIT III Evolution & Population...

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The real reason the dinosaurs became extinct… UNIT III Evolution Population Genetics
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EVOLUTION & POPULATION GENETICS SLIDE SET IX I. The concept of evolution up to Darwin’s time A. Greek philosophy B. Judeo-Christian theology (e.g. Linnaeus) C. The Enlightenment (geological science) D. Lamarck E. State of knowledge at Darwin’s time II. Darwin and the theory of evolution by natural selection A. Voyage of the Beagle B. Formulation of the theory III. Evolutionary theory A. Essential elements IV. Lines of evidence for evolution A. Biogeography B. The fossil record C. Comparative anatomy D. Embryology E. Molecular biology F. Artificial selection
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EVOLUTION: Species change over time and new species arise by the modification of earlier species. i.e., “descent with modification” - Charles Darwin, 1859 On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution.” - T. Dobzhansky
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Greek PhilosophERS e.g. Plato and Aristotle (350 bc) Plato and “essentialism” - God created all things - all things have a constan t, perfec t “essenc e” (an “ideal form”; an abstract entity) - variation is an imperfect reflection of the inner essence - no potential life was left unrealized (i.e., species don’t change; no new species)
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Evolution, Monroe W. Strickberger Aristotle and the ScalA NaturAE (the “scale of nature”) - all living things are fixed in a linear hierarchy - no empty “links” or “rungs” Implication: - species don’t/can’t/shouldn’t change
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Natural theologians : Species: Homo sapiens (italicized) Genus: Homo Family: Hominidae Order: Primates Class: Mammalia Phylum: Chordata Kingdom: Animalia The study of nature to better understand God ’s plan e.g., Carolus Linnaeus (~1750) - sought to discover order in & classify the diversity of life to better understand God’s plan - species divinely created as perfect all at same time , ~ 6000 yrs ago (Biblical creation) - Linnaeus created a nested classification system: each “type” of organism has a 2- part binomial scientific name consisting of its Genus & Species .
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Georges Cuvier & discoveries from Paleontology (= the study of fossils ) ex: strata in the Grand Canyon See, e.g., Fig. 22.3 Fossil organisms in close (MORE RECENT) layers are similar yet different Fossil organisms in far-apart layers are less similar many species in older(LOWER) layers don’t exist today But then came the Age of Enlightmentment:
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Catastrophism: - proponents (Cuvier) usually accepted a divine creation - believed in a relatively young age for the earth - the fossil record reflects extinctions due to sporadic catastrophes (i.e., no evolution ) vs……….
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James Hutton (1726 - 1797) Geologic gradualism - geologic features arise by slow gradual processes over long periods of time (not catastrophically) ***slow, continuous processes like erosion & sedimentation can lead to even profound change – like the Grand Canyon, etc.
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Charles Lyell ( 1797 - 1875 ) Uniformitarianism
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2011 SLIDE SET IX Spr11 - UNIT III Evolution & Population...

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