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Slide Set XV short Spr11

Slide Set XV short Spr11 - Community Ecology Slide Set XV...

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Community Ecology
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Slide Set XV
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Community All of the organisms that inhabit the same geographic area.
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Community The species diversity or composition of a community is described in terms of (1) species richness and (2) relative species abundance species richness : total number of different species in the community relative abundance : the proportion each species represents of the total community
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Community #1 Community #2 - Communities 1 & 2 have the same species richness (i.e., same # of spp.) - Community #1 has higher species diversity
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B. Types of Species Interactions: 1. Mutualism (+/+) both parties benefit classic example: plants & their pollinators Benefits: plants get pollinated pollinators get food in the form of nectar These benefits increase as plant - pollinator interactions become more and more specific… plants/pollinators
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For example: there are ~ 900 different species of figs, and each is fertilized by a different species of fig wasp. Selective advantages: pollen is not wasted on wrong species of fig & wasp species do not have to compete with each other for nectar
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Evolutionary modifications that capitalize on mutualism : examples from orchids and bees An orchid ( Ophrys scolopax ) resembles a female bee ( Eucera longicornis ) and produces a scent mimicking a female bee sex phermone to attract male bee pollinators. Figure 35.6 Biology, 6th edition, Solomon, Berg, and Martin Ex. 1: Orchids that mimic female bees:
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2. “Cleaner” fish & shrimp & their “clients” cleaner (often brightly colored) picks parasites off of a “client” organism Mutual benefits enhance fitness : - free meal (cleaner) - reduced parasite load (client)
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Example 3: sea anemones (+) and hermit crabs (+) 1. Mutualism (+/+) -sea anemone enhances crab fitness (deters predators) -normally stationary sea anemone now has higher fitness (is exposed to wider feeding area) Ave. # of days No anemone One anemone Three anemones surviving
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1. Mutualism: +/+ Acacia tree/ant sea anemone/clown fish “catttle” birds
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2. Commensalism (+/0) one benefits; one unaffected Example 1: cattle egrets and cows Benefit: cows disturb insects (food for egrets) as they graze Other examples: Orchids in trees
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3. Predation (includes parasites & pathogens): +/-
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