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CHAPTER 11 - CHAPTER 11 | Managing Individual Differences...

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CHAPTER 11 | Managing Individual Differences & Behavior: Supervising People as People 11.1 Personality & Individual Behavior Personality- consists of the stable psychological traits and behavioral attributes that give a person his or her identity Big Five Personality Dimensions 1. Extroversion - how outgoing, talkative, sociable, and assertive a person is. 2. Agreeableness - how trusting, good-natured, cooperative, and soft-hearted one is 3. Conscientious - how dependable, responsible, achievement-oriented, and persistent on is 4. Emotional stability -how relaxed, secure, and unworried one is. 5. Openness to experience - how intellectual, imaginative, curious, and broad-mined one is. *Extroversion is a strong predictor of job performance than agreeableness across all professions especially salespeople and managers ** Conscientiousness has been found to have the strongest positive correlation with job performance and training performance. Cautions about using personality tests in the workplace: Use professionals Don't hire on the basis of personality test results alone Be alert for gender, racial, and ethnic bias Graphology tests don't work but integrity tests do Proactive Personality- someone who is more apt to take initiative and persevere to influence the environment-identify opportunities and act on them, which makes them associated not only with success but also entrepreneuship. Five Important Traits in Organizations 1. Locus of control: I am/ am not the captain of my fate Indicates how much people believe their fate through their own efforts Internal Locus - you control your destiny-exhibit less anxiety, greater work motivation, and stronger expectations that effort leads to performance, higher salaries, resist close managerial supervision, prefer incentives and sales commissions External Locus - external forces control you, like structure and supervision, 2. Self-Efficacy: I can/can't do this task Self-efficacy- belief in one's personal ability to do a task-your personal belief that you have what it takes to succeed. High expectations of self efficacy positive Learned helplessness- the debilitating lack of faith in one's ability to control one's environment, associated with low self efficacy o Assign jobs accordingly-assign complex, challenging, autonomous jobs, not boring tedious ones o Develop self-efficacy-to build it give them constructive pointers and feedback 3. Self-esteem: I like/dislike myself
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Self-esteem- the extent to which people like or dislike themselves, their overall self evaluation o People with high self-esteem handle failure better and are more independent as opposed to people with low self-esteem, take more risks, may be aggressive or violent. Low dependent on others, negative thoughts, likely to be influenced easily 4. Self-Monitoring: I'm fairly able/unable to adapt my behavior to others The extent to which people are able to observe their own behavior and adapt to external situations-if you can tell that someone if busy, you know to leave them alone instead of keep talking. High
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