AliceExam2

AliceExam2 - MemorySystems 03/11/201109:22:00 1. Sensory...

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Memory Systems 03/11/2011 09:22:00 1. Sensory Register : fleeting, in the moment; with attention, ENCODING occurs 2. Storage : STM – limited to 7 items; WM – active STM; LTM relatively permanent 3. Retrieval : recognition, recall, cued recall •Memory •On Purpose? o •IMPLICIT •Procedures, habits •Priming •Conditioning o •EXPLICIT •Semantic (Factual) •Episodic THE INFANT Infantile Amnesia before age 2-3 o Lack of language o Fuzzy trace theory Imitation o Of facial impressions by 6 wks o Deferred imitation by 6 months Habituation present at birth
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Operant Conditioning IMPLICIT and EXPLICIT Memory Implicit = unintentional, automatic; information from everyday experience; does not change over lifespan Explicit = deliberate, effortful; increases from infancy to adulthood The CHILD Memory Strategies o Rehearsa l by age 7 Repeating information to oneself o Organization by age 10 Grouping related items together o Elaboration later Creating a relationship between pieces of information not in same category o Retrieval strategies External cues needed when younger ADOLESCENTS New strategies emerge (elaboration) Better use of strategies Basic capacities increase (i.e. speed) Knowledge base increases (scaffolding, transfer) Metacognition improves CHILDREN & ADULTS
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Metamemory : knowledge of memory o Awareness of memory processes is beneficial even to young children o Gets better with age o Experience is important Autobiographical Memories o Scripts : Typical sequence of actions Affect memory o Eyewitness memory Improves with age; younger more suggestible Accuracy better with open questions o Memory from age 15-25 is higher than from other points in life MIDDLE ADULTHOOD WM decreases 20s - 60s o Less use of memory strategies —may be due to slower processing, attention problems Adults can compensate o Strategy reminders o Relevant info Few changes in: o Factual knowledge o Procedural knowledge o Metacognitive knowledge
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ADULTHOOD—developing expertise Domain specific knowledge base increases Strategy Use o More organized o More elaborative techniques o Also domain specific Automaticity of more information MEMORY and AGING Older adults learn more slowly Remember less learned information o Declines by age 70 o Timed tasks, unfamiliar tasks o Recall vs. Recognition o Explicit memory tasks more trouble o Cognitively demanding Explaining Declines Negative beliefs affect memory skills Strategy use not spontaneous Attention becomes more effortful (motivation) Processing speed decreases Sensory, health, and lifestyle changes
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Cohort differences (age & IQ) – measurement!
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AliceExam2 - MemorySystems 03/11/201109:22:00 1. Sensory...

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