Exam2 - MemorySystems 1 Sensory Register fleeting in the...

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Memory Systems 00:13 1. Sensory Register : fleeting, in the moment; with attention, ENCODING occurs 2. Storage : STM – limited to 7 items; WM – active STM; LTM relatively permanent 3. Retrieval : recognition, recall, cued recall •Memory •On Purpose? •IMPLICIT •Procedures, habits •Priming •Conditioning •EXPLICIT •Semantic (Factual) •Episodic THE INFANT Infantile Amnesia before age 2-3 Lack of language Fuzzy trace theory Imitation Of facial impressions by 6 wks Deferred imitation by 6 months Habituation present at birth
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Operant Conditioning IMPLICIT and EXPLICIT Memory Implicit = unintentional, automatic; information from everyday experience; does not change over lifespan Explicit = deliberate, effortful; increases from infancy to adulthood The CHILD Memory Strategies Rehearsa l by age 7 Repeating information to oneself Organization by age 10 Grouping related items together Elaboration later Creating a relationship between pieces of information not in same category Retrieval strategies External cues needed when younger ADOLESCENTS New strategies emerge (elaboration) Better use of strategies Basic capacities increase (i.e. speed) Knowledge base increases (scaffolding, transfer) Metacognition improves CHILDREN & ADULTS
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Metamemory : knowledge of memory Awareness of memory processes is beneficial even to young children Gets better with age Experience is important Autobiographical Memories Scripts : Typical sequence of actions Affect memory Eyewitness memory Improves with age; younger more suggestible Accuracy better with open questions Memory from age 15-25 is higher than from other points in life MIDDLE ADULTHOOD WM decreases 20s - 60s Less use of memory strategies —may be due to slower processing, attention problems Adults can compensate Strategy reminders Relevant info Few changes in: Factual knowledge Procedural knowledge Metacognitive knowledge
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ADULTHOOD—developing expertise Domain specific knowledge base increases Strategy Use More organized More elaborative techniques Also domain specific Automaticity of more information MEMORY and AGING Older adults learn more slowly Remember less learned information Declines by age 70 Timed tasks, unfamiliar tasks Recall vs. Recognition Explicit memory tasks more trouble Cognitively demanding Explaining Declines Negative beliefs affect memory skills Strategy use not spontaneous Attention becomes more effortful (motivation) Processing speed decreases Sensory, health, and lifestyle changes
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Cohort differences Declines NOT universal What is the process of thinking? One Model
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Exam2 - MemorySystems 1 Sensory Register fleeting in the...

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