23_environmentandWTOSP2008

23_environmentandWTOSP2008 - 1/9/2008 Environmental...

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1/9/2008 1 Environmental Implications of the WTO Geography 1000 Spring 2008 Lecture 23 There are no CHAPTER readings but……the WTO and its environmental impacts is on the test!!! • Please read pages 578-579, and Inset box p. 581 to become more familiar with the WTO. The WTO is based upon the foundation of an earlier agreement: GATT –The general agreement on tariffs and trade). Consider the world’s economy (GDP)grew from $6.7 trillion in 1950 to 48 trillion in 2007! Trade has increased more dramatically from $311 billion in 1950 to $14.4 trillion in 2004!
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1/9/2008 2 Talking about the WTO and its environmental impacts is like the Blind (men?) Mice and the Elephant (or whatever that story is. .) Basic Principles of Trade Agreements • NAFTA and WTO use the same basic principles • Procedural rules are based on the principles of transparency and reciprocity • Other fundamental principles prohibit discrimination Environment and Trade Policy • Why environmental issues are becoming more entwined with trade policy? • Recently, environmental concerns has grown rapidly: resource depletion, species extinction, animal rights. – Reason(?): Economic growth in developing countries with laxer standards. – Environmental Kuznets curve
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1/9/2008 3 WTO GENESIS The General Agreement on Trade and Tariff (GATT) came into existence in 1947 It sought substantial reduction in tariff and other barriers to trade and to eliminate discriminatory treatment in international commerce. 22 nations were signatory to GATT 1947. Eight rounds of negotiations had taken place during five decades of its existence Contd. WTO GENESIS WTO Came into existence on 1-1-1995 with the conclusion of Uruguay Round Multilateral Trade Negotiations at Marrakesh on 15 th April 1994, to : Transparent, free and rule-based trading system Provide common institutional framework for conduct of trade relations among members Facilitate the implementation, administration and operation of Multilateral Trade Agreements Rules and Procedures Governing Dispute Settlement Trade Policy Review Mechanism Concern for LDCs and concern on Non-trade issues such as Food Security, environment, health, etc. BASIC PRINCIPLES 1. NON-DISCRIMINATION MFN status open to all National Treatment—all in a market should have access to all markets— national and international 2. MARKET ACCESS Reduction and binding of tariffs General elimination of quantitative restrictions on imports and exports
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1/9/2008 4 State sovereignty Empowers countries to enter into treaties. Gives governments authority to regulate the acts of persons inside their territory and their own citizens. Gives countries the right to exploit their own resources as they wish. Gives countries the responsibility to ensure that activities inside their borders do not cause damage to the environment outside their borders (in other countries or in international areas).
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2008 for the course GEOG 1000 taught by Professor Veeck during the Spring '08 term at Western Michigan.

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23_environmentandWTOSP2008 - 1/9/2008 Environmental...

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