computer-arch-intro

computer-arch-intro - CSE 341 Computer Abstractions...

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CSE 341 The Computer Industry c How fast is the computer industry advancing? h If the travel industry kept up with the computer industry, we could travel from London to New York in 1 second for a few cents! c Uses h Automatic teller machines (ATM) h Automotive Industry a Antilock brakes a Traction control a Engine control C Reduces emissions C Increases fuel efficiency a Stability control a All wheel drive h a Miniaturization h Human Genome Project a The computer equipment to map the human DNA sequences will be 100’s of millions of dollars C 10 to 20 years ago, this would have been 10 to 100 times higher h World Wide Web a Evolved from ARPANET h Search Engines a Applies not only to the WWW C Consider online card catalogs in libraries Classes of Computing Applications c Desktop Computers c Servers h h Designed for: a Large workloads C a Handling many small jobs C Web servers h Range a Low-end C File server C Web server C Small business applications
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a High-end c Supercomputers Weather prediction Protein structure determination C Embedded Computers h Processing Capability a Just enough to meet requirements h Tight Design Constraints a Cost a Power h Uses a Automobiles, Aircraft, Cell Phones, Washing Machines, Personal Watercraft, PDAs, Alarm Clocks, TVs h Dependability is critical a Achieved by c Simplicity in consumer related applications Focus on doing one task as perfectly as possible c Redundancy in large embedded systems Such as aircraft control h Fastest growing area in the computer industry C h Primary constraint on performance was the size of memory a Minimize memory to make programs fast C Today h Excellent knowledge of computer organization is key! Performance C What defines performance? h Response Time h Throughput C Measuring Performance h Benchmarking C Factors Affecting Performance h Translation of high-level programs into machine language h Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) a The boundary between hardware and software h Hardware Optimization h Sequential vs. Parallel Processing a Multicore processors
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c Algorithm h Number of source-level statements h Number of I/O operations c Programming Language, Compiler, Architecture h Number of machine language instructions for each source-level statement c h Determines speed of execution for instructions c I/O Systems h a Determines speed of operations c Which system offers better program performance? c Over the past decade h memory h Programmers now need to understand what replaced the simple memory model a Hierarchical memory a Parallel nature of processors h Computer organization is important a Effects the design of: C Compilers C Operating Systems C Databases C
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computer-arch-intro - CSE 341 Computer Abstractions...

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