Topic 1, DNA & RNA structure

Topic 1, DNA & RNA structure - Topic 1: DNA &...

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Topic 1: DNA & RNA Structure
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Course overview What are the structures of DNA, RNA, and protein? What are the functions of DNA, RNA, and protein? What methods are available for study and manipulation of DNA, RNA, and protein? How can a cell modify it’s properties using these molecules? How does a cell control what it can do through the ability to manipulate these molecules?
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Learning Objectives Be able to define the following terms: nucleic acids, nucleotide vs. nucleoside, polymerization, 5’ and 3’ ends, base-pairing, anti-parallel base-pairing Be able to list the 3 components that make up nucleic acids and to identify those components in a nucleotide structure Be able to differentiate between the chemical structure and sequence of DNA and RNA Be able to identify which base is which and also which are purines and pyrimidines Be able to diagram how a nucleotide is added onto an existing nucleic acid chain Be able to label the ends (5’ vs. 3’) and strands (sense vs. antisense) of nucleic acids according to conventional rules
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Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA and RNA O In a ring structure, if nothing is shown then typically a carbon is there
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(Base) (Sugar) (Phosphate) The 3 components of a nucleic acid: base, sugar, phosphate group 1 2 3 4 5 Note that the base always attaches to C 1 or the 1’ position The phosphate group attaches to the C 5 or 5’ position --Note that you will see figures that show this in the reverse orientation!
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Part 1: the base Generic Generic
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A denine = A bsent oxygen T hymine = T wo oxygens A ngels and G od are PURE Can never be TWO pure! Summary: Pyrimidines have a single ring and purines have 2 rings Objective: be able to identify the correct name of the molecule by looking at the structure
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Bases are the most interesting part of DNA/RNA because they encode the genetic material!! Phosphate groups don’t change, although incorporated nucleotides have a single phosphate group while unincorporated nucleotides have 1, 2, or 3 groups Sugars are pretty boring except that DNA and RNA use slightly different sugars
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Part 2: add some sugar to make a nucleos ide Figure 1.06: Deoxy ribonucleosides: used for deoxy ribonucleic acid (DNA) Always attaches to a particular carbon atom of the sugar called the 1’ carbon
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Part 3: polish if off with some phosphate to make a nucleot ide Figure 1.08a: 5'-nucleoside monophosphates Note that this structure is drawn backwards relative to slide #4. You should be
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Topic 1, DNA & RNA structure - Topic 1: DNA &...

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