Topic 2, Classic experiments & Central Dogma

Topic 2, Classic experiments & Central Dogma -...

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Topic 2—Classic experiments in molecular biology
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Schedule for next week No class on Monday (Labor Day) No class on Wednesday (Dr. Berges out of town)
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Learning Objectives Be able to define the following terms: genetic material, transformation, bacteriophage, radioisotopes, semi-conservative replication Be able to diagram the central dogma of molecular biology, as well as to list various aspects that are no longer true Be able to explain the methodology of each of the classic experiments that led to the discovery of DNA as the genetic material, and the conclusions derived from each individual experiment Be able to re-interpret the conclusions of the classic experiments if they had found different results
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The Central Dogma 1 2 3 4 (process name) 5 (enzyme name) 6 (process name) 7 (enzyme name) 8 (process name) 9 (enzyme name)
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The Central Dogma DNA 2 3 4 (process name) 5 (enzyme name) 6 (process name) 7 (enzyme name) 8 (process name) 9 (enzyme name)
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The Central Dogma DNA RNA 3 4 (process name) 5 (enzyme name) 6 (process name) 7 (enzyme name) 8 (process name) 9 (enzyme name)
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The Central Dogma DN A RNA protei n 4 (process name) 5 (enzyme name) 6 (process name) 7 (enzyme name) 8 (process name) 9 (enzyme name)
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The Central Dogma DN A RNA protei n transcription RNA polymerase translation Ribosomes replication DNA polymerase Know these terms very well! The details of these events form the major crux of this course. Be aware that some students get confused between the different names and processes….
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The Central Dogma is no longer Dogma The Central Dogma—turned upside down DN A RNA protei n transcription RNA polymerase translation Ribosomes replication DNA polymerase RNA to DNA Reverse Transcriptase Many RNAs do not encode proteins Self-replicating proteins (prions)? Also, RNA can self-replicate in viruses using RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. They use RNA as their genetic material (e.g., influenza, ebola, measles)
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Why discuss classic experiments? To be a successful scientist, you need to understand the major breakthroughs You also need to understand the context of what they knew at the time and how a particular experiment contributed to general scientific knowledge The Central Dogma has already been turned upside down…..what additional discoveries remain to be made?
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Experiments for discussion today What was the goal of these experiments? What was the predominant idea about “genetic material” at the time? Think about what techniques these researchers had at the time (to be able to fully appreciate what they accomplished)
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How were the data obtained?  ( Methods ) What are the data? ( Results ) What is the   Question or  Hypothesis ? What do the data mean? ( Conclusion significance, application.) THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
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How did we come to know that DNA was the hereditary (genetic) material?
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