Topic 5, protein functions

Topic 5, protein functions - Topic 5Protein function...

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Topic 5—Protein function
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Learning Objectives Be able to define the following: protein functional domain, protein modifications, enzyme, substrate Be able to explain how certain amino acids tend to contribute to particular domains/functions based upon charge or polarity Be able to describe how a single protein can have multiple domains with differing functions Understand and be able to differentiate between the 2 main models of enzyme-substrate interactions Be able to list several types of protein modifications, and be able explain why protein modifications are important Be able to explain/diagram common ways to measure enzymatic activity
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A single protein typically consists of various functional domains A protein domain is a region of a protein that has a specific function, location, or shape Examples? --Direct the protein to move to the correct part of the cell --Allow for interactions with other proteins --Allow a protein to be activated under proper conditions Certain amino acids tend to be associated with particular types of domains, examples to follow Examples? Hydrophobic amino acids like to associate with hydrophobic molecules, amino acids with –OH groups can be modified by phosphorylation, etc.
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An example of a protein domain: transmembrane domains Plasma membranes are composed of lipids What type of amino acids would you expect to find in the portions of the protein inserted into a membrane? Spaces inside and outside the cell are mostly water- based What type of amino acids would you expect to find in Transmembrane domains
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An example of a transmembrane domain: ion channels Some transmembrane domains are ion channels: they allow ions to pass through What type of amino acids would you expect to be on the outside of the channel (facing the lipid membrane)? What type of amino acids would you expect to be on the inside of the channel (facing where the ions pass through)?
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Signal transducing proteins have both an extracellular domain and an intracellular domain Intracellular domains are activated by binding of something (called a ligand) to the extracellular domain
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