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nutrition ch5-7 sg

nutrition ch5-7 sg - Chapter 5 The Lipids Fats Oils...

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Chapter 5: The Lipids: Fats, Oils, Phospholipids, and Sterols 1. Describe functions of fat in the body and in foods. (150) p150 table 5-1 In the body: · 1. Chief form of stored energy · 2. Muscle fuel · 3. Emergency fuel reserve for times of illness or low food intake · 4. Padding of internal organs - .5 Insulation against extreme temperatures · 6. Form cell membrane material · 7. Converts to hormones, bile, and vitamin D (Vitamin D is formed from cholesterol and cholesterol is formed in the liver from Sat Fat) · -Triglycerides: made of 3 fatty acids and glycerol, is the storage form of fat -component fatty acids -monounsaturated: has 1 double bond in chain -polyunsaturated: 2 or more double bonds(oils-best). if comes from a plant, has more polyunsaturated except coconut and palm oil. -unsaturated=plant fats -saturated: no double bonds *see sources under fatty acids -Most common source of fat -The more saturated it is, the harder it is at room temperature. (oils are liquid at room temperature because they are less saturated) - saturated and unsaturated have same amount of calories and carbons. Saturated just has more hydrogens. there is no difference in digestibility. In food: · 1 . Provides essential fatty acids · 2. Concentrated energy source in foods · 3. Transport of fat-soluble vitamins [A, D,E & K] along with phytochemicals (things that occur naturally such as beta carotene) & assists in their absorption · 4. Raw materials provided for making needed products · 5. Sensory appeal: taste and smell · 6. Appetite stimulator · 7. Satiety or feeling full · 8. Texture: helps make foods tender 2. Describe the different types, structures, and functions of lipids including fatty acids. (Pg 154) Omega 3 (linolenic acid): lowers blood pressure, inflammation, lowers abnormal blood clotting, decreases hardening of arteries. (not found in many products but good for us!) o acids EPA and DHA (found in human milk and fish): Essential fatty acids. help with neurological function in babies (brain and vision) o sources: fatty fish, canola oil, soybean oil (also a good source for Omega 6) Omega 6 (linoleic acid): increases blood pressure o sources: seeds, nuts, vegetable oil room temperature (more widespread) - Sterols: rings of carbon atoms with side chains of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen attached -cholesterol is an example and can be synthesized in the body but is only found in animal sources -cholesterol makes vitamin D in the liver and kidneys -cholesterol serves as the raw material for making emulsifiers in bile -makes hormones : testosterone and estrogen (androgens) -sterols found in plant sources and inhibit cholesterol absorption and lower blood cholesterol levels.
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- Phospholipids : made of a glycerol molecule and 2 fatty acids and phosphorus(which makes the molecule soluble in H20) - phospholipids have water loving and fat loving characteristics -Phosphorus allows it to be an emulsifier (breaks down and separates fat), bile emulsifies the fat.
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