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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8: 26 questions Chapter 9: 30 questions Chapter 10: 19 questions Chapter 8: Water and Minerals Focus on calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iodine, iron, zinc, selenium, and fluoride. There will not be exam questions on the other minerals. 1. Identify the major roles of water in the body. a. Transport: Carries nutrients throughout the body b. Solvent: It dissolves amino acids, glucose, minerals, and many other substances needed by the cells. Water is the universal solvent. c. Cleansing agent: Small molecules, such as nitrogen wastes generated during protein metabolism, dissolve in the watery blood and must be removed before they build up to toxic concentrations. The kidneys filter these wastes from the blood and excrete them, mixed with water, as urine. d. Actively participates in many chemical reactions e. Lubricant and cushion: Water molecules resist being crowded together; can act as a lubricant and a cushion for the joints, and it can protect sensitive tissue such as the spinal cord from shock; fetus; lubricates the digestive tract, the respiratory tract, and all tissues that are moistened with mucus. Shock absorber inside the eyes, spinal cord, joints, and amniotic sac surrounding a fetus in the womb. f. Coolant (temperature regulation): Water from sweat is the bodys coolant; water maintains the bodys temperature. g. Hydrolysis h. Helps prevent collapse of the circulatory system 2. Describe factors influencing the amount of water needed by the body. Foods a person eats the altitude alcohol consumption cold weather dietary fiber heated environments hot weather increased protein salt or sugar intakes ketosis medications (diuretics) physical activity pregnancy and breastfeeding prolonged diarrhea vomiting or fever surgery blood loss burns very young or old age forced-air environments (airplanes and sealed buildings) diseases that disturb water balance (such as diabetes and kidney diseases) 3. Compare the quality of hard verses soft water. Hard o water with high calcium and magnesium concentrations o lower cardiovascular disease rate o leaves a ring on the tub, a jumble of rock-like crystals in the teakettle, and a gray residue in the wash-whites turn gray o Need to use more shampoo/ poor lather Soft o water with high sodium or potassium concentration o makes more bubbles with less soap o may aggravate hypertension (high blood pressure), even though it may seem more desirable o more easily dissolves certain contaminant metals, such as cadmium and lead, from pipes (cadmium can harm the body, affecting enzymes by displacing zinc from its normal binding sites) o lead is absorbed more readily from soft water than from hard water 4. Identify the major functions of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iodine, iron, zinc, selenium, and fluoride....
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- Winter '08