Biomech-Muscle Physiology-Lecture

Biomech-Muscle Physiology-Lecture - Muscle Physiology...

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Muscle Physiology Introduction to Biomechanics 14:125:208
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Muscle: Overview There are 3 types of muscle found in vertebrates: Skeletal Cardiac Smooth Muscle
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Muscle: Overview Cardiac muscle- the walls of the heart are composed of cardiac muscle Contracts about 70 times per minute Pumping about 5 liters of blood each minute
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Muscle: Overview Smooth muscle is present in the walls of all the hollow organs, including blood vessels Not present in the heart
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Muscle: Overview Smooth muscle contraction reduces the size of the structure Enables control of blood flow Moves food through gastrointestinal tract Forces urine from the bladder Contracts uterus during child birth Regulates air flow through the lungs The contraction of smooth muscle is generally not under voluntary control
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Muscle: Overview Skeletal muscle Attached to the skeleton Also called striated muscle Responsible for limb movement The contraction of skeletal muscle is under voluntary control
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Muscle: Skeletal Muscle Overall Structure A single skeletal muscle, such as the triceps muscle, is attached at the origin to a large area of bone At its other end, the insertion, it tapers into a tendon which is attached to another bone
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Muscle: Skeletal Muscle Some skeletal muscles are organized into 2 groups Extensors Flexors Make up an antagonistic pair of muscles Necessary for skeletal movement because skeletal muscle exerts force only when it contracts
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Muscle: Skeletal Muscle Triceps and biceps When the triceps contracts, the insertion is pulled toward the origin and the arm is straightened or extended at the elbow The triceps is an extensor
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Muscle: Skeletal Muscle The biceps muscle is the flexor of the lower arm It flexes or bends the joint
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Muscle: Skeletal Muscle Skeletal muscle is made up of thousands of cylindrical muscle fibers often running all the way from origin to insertion They are arranged in parallel The fibers are bound together by connective tissue through which run blood vessels and nerves
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Muscle: Skeletal Muscle A myofiber is a multinucleated single muscle cell Size Diameter: <100 microns – a few hundred microns Length: a few millimeters in length to a few centimeters in length The cell is densely packed with contractile proteins, energy stores and signaling mechanisms
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Muscle: Skeletal Muscle The myofiber is the smallest complete contractile system It requires subsystems for metabolism, excitation and contraction
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Muscle: Skeletal Muscle These fibers are actually groups of cells (myoblasts) fused together Each muscle fiber contains: Sarcolemma-plasma membrane Sarcoplasmic-reticulum for endoplasmic reticulum Sarcosome-mitochondrion Sarcoplasm-cytoplasm
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Muscle: Skeletal Muscle The nuclei and mitochondria are located just beneath the plasma membrane The endoplasmic reticulum extends between the myofibrils
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This document was uploaded on 11/04/2011 for the course BIOCHEMIST 208 at Rutgers.

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Biomech-Muscle Physiology-Lecture - Muscle Physiology...

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