Biomech-Bone_Structure-Lecture

Biomech-Bone_Structure-Lecture - Bone Physiology...

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Bone Physiology Introduction to Biomechanics 14:125:208
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Bone: Overview Bones provide structural support to the body and protect vital organs The adult human body contains 206 bones
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Bone: Overview Bones are not just structural supports They protect internal organs such as the heart, lungs, and brain They serve as reserves for minerals such as calcium They house bone marrow-responsible for creating red blood cells (red marrow) and storing fat (yellow marrow)
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Bone: Overview Your bones are strong enough to support your weight, but light enough to allow movement Despite appearing dry and lifeless, your bones are a hive of activity Bones contain blood vessels, nerve cells, and osteocytes (which can differentiate into osteoblasts and osteoclasts)
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Bone: Overview Also produce blood cells and store fat In the center of long bones, such as the femur, is a cavity filled with bone marrow Red bone marrow is a soft tissue that produces blood cells Yellow bone marrow is a store for fat
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Bone: Overview Bone consists of a mineral phase and a fibrous protein phase Calcium phosphate, mainly in the form of hydroxyapatite Mineral is rigid and gives the bone it’s compressive strength The main type of protein in bone is type I collagen Collagen is flexible and gives bone toughness and some elasticity (a small amount)
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Bone: Types Bones are split into 4 categories: Long bones- in your arms and legs, mostly made of compact bone Short bones- in your wrists and ankles, mainly made of spongy bone Flat bones- ribs and skull, made of a layer of spongy bone sandwiched between two thin layers of compact bone Irregular bones-pelvis and other unusual shaped bones
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Bone: Types Bones are further classified as Axial or Appendicular Axial bones are protective For example, spinal vertebrae act to protect the spinal cord. Appendicular bones are the limbs Bones that make up the spinal column are unique
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Bone: Types 3 General forms of bone Woven Plexiform Lamellar
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Bone: Woven Bone Woven bone A disorganized form of bone that is associated with youth (under the age of 5) or damage due to trauma or disease. Has few collagen fibers randomly oriented This gives woven bone low strength
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Bone: Woven Bone Woven bone is unique in its ability to form spontaneously without a pre-existing structure
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Bone: Plexiform Bone Plexiform bone Formed more rapidly than primary or secondary lamellar bone tissue Primarily found in large rapidly growing animals such as cows or sheep Rarely seen in humans Plexiform bone obtained its name from the vascular plexuses contained within lamellar bone sandwiched by nonlamellar bone
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Bone: Plexiform Bone Plexiform bone arises from mineral buds which grow first perpendicular and then parallel to the outer bone surface This produces the brick like structure Each "brick" in plexiform bone is about 125 microns across
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Biomech-Bone_Structure-Lecture - Bone Physiology...

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