Sensation _ Perception - lecture 7 - basic visual functions II

Sensation _ Perception - lecture 7 - basic visual functions II

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Basic Visual Functions II Lecture 7
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Theories of Attention ß There are a number of “theories of attention” … one approach is not sufficient to explain all of the experimental findings. ß All theories do share at least one element in common, they attempt to explain the filtering aspect of attention.
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Higher-Level Processes ß Structural Theories ß Oldest surviving theoretical approach. ß Imply that perceptual attention is structurally limited. ß There is a “bottleneck” or filter (selective filter) somewhere in the information-processing system. ß Only one, or at most a few, stimulus inputs can pass through the bottleneck at one time. ß Early selection vs. Late Selection.
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Early Selection Model Filter: selection on basis of physical characteristics. Senses (eye, ear, etc.) STM Store Analysis
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Higher-Level Processes ß Early Selection Model ß Bottleneck (selective filter) occurs early in the perceptual process. ß Just after registration in the sensory system and before the meaning of an input can be determined.
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Early Selection Model When having a conversation in a crowded room, you isolate the person’s voice by means of the physical characteristics (frequency, intensity, location) that distinguish it. Instead of by what the various speakers are saying. Have a difficulty explaining evidence that at least some analysis of information from unattended channels occurs.
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Late Selection Model Filter: selection on based on some amount of analysis. Senses (eye, ear, etc.) STM Store Analysis
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Higher-Level Processes ß Late Selection Model ß Bottleneck (selective filter) occurs late in the perceptual process. ß All information entering a sensory system gets some preliminary analysis. ß Bottleneck occurs at a stage of conscious processing, when material is being entered into LTM.
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Attentional Resources Allocated to Task 1 Stimulus Inputs Mental Resources Available Possible Activities Selected Actual Responses
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Attentional Resources Stimulus Inputs Mental Resources Available Possible Activities Selected Actual Responses Allocated to Task 1 Allocated to Task 2
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Higher-Level Processes ß Attentional Resources Perspective ß Developed in response to results from studies of search, preparation, and divided attention. ß
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This document was uploaded on 11/04/2011 for the course PSYCH 301 at Rutgers.

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Sensation _ Perception - lecture 7 - basic visual functions II

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