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feb 17 - INTRO TO ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION NOTES Hominidae...

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INTRO TO ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION NOTES February 17, 2011 Hominidae: Gorillas Orangutans Chimpanzees Bonobo Humans Gibbons Fossils 3 genus traits natural selection 3 billion letters in the genetic code 99% of human genentic code is identical 1% = 30,000,000 (30 million) letters are different o Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) Signature (sign) natural selection Great change in DNA in the last 50,000 years Last accelerated change 10,000 years ago 3 changes: 1. Human geographic variation in skin color? a. Nina JaWonski and George Chaplin (2000) a.i. ORIGIN = Africa a.i.1. 5-3 mya common ancestor with chips and bonobos a.ii. Earliest member of hominid line = unpigmented + lots of black hair a.iii. Then, lost all body hair a.iv. We evolved in zone 1 (JaWonski’s skin color tests) a.iv.1. UV Radiation a.iv.1.a. Overexposure skin cancer a.iv.1.b. Advantageous skin color = dark a.iv.2. Vitamin B photolysis a.iv.2.a. Vital for bodily functions (DNA, RNA, growth) a.iv.2.b.
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