Class 4 - Public Decision Making (ch 4)

Class 4 - Public Decision Making (ch 4) - Chapter 4 Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Chapter Public Decision Making 1 Chapter 4… Chapter Introduces concepts of decision making We will discuss… The nature of decision making Theoretical Models of Decision Making Challenges of Decision Making Decision Making… Decision Entails choosing one course of action over Entails another another Includes the following steps Pinpointing the Problem Identifying Causes Setting Objectives Formulating Alternatives Evaluating Alternatives Evaluating Choosing best option Implementing and Evaluation Choice Step 1: Pinpointing the Problem Step Compare the expected result with the actual Compare result result Example: what IS happening versus what Example: SHOULD BE happening SHOULD Important to have this clearly defined before Important looking for a solution looking Analysis should be specific and include the Analysis present and desired situation. present What are the reasons for the disparity? Step 2: Indentifying Causes Step Start with last element of Step 1 What are the reasons for the disparity? Most likely cause is one that most Most precisely explains all the facts about the problem. problem. Step 3: Setting Objectives Step Set objectives that the decision must Set achieve achieve Objectives should be: Specific in nature Measurable Indicate who, what, when, where, how much Once set, classify as a ‘musts’ and ‘wants’ ‘musts’ are non-negotiable ‘wants’ should be ranked in order of wants’ importance importance 6 Step 4: Formulating Action Alternatives Step Has this problem existed before? Brainstorm No criticizing of ideas The wilder the idea, the better Quantity more important than quality Combine and build on already given ideas Don’t reveal problem in advance but clearly Don’t define it during session define Group should include seasoned and new Group participants participants When out of ideas, review list and try again! BE CREATIVE! 7 Steps 5 & 6: Evaluate Alternatives/Choose Best One Evaluate Evaluate each idea against the objectives Evaluate determined in Step 3 determined To make the cut, must meet all ‘musts’ and at To some of the ‘wants’ some Consider unintended consequences and Consider other factors other Will motivation, skill, growth, relationships, Will organization's image be affected? organization's Ideally, best choice meets most objectives Ideally, with least unintended with Make a Pro-Con list (also called a balance Make sheet) sheet) 8 Theoretical Models of Decision Making Theoretical Rational Model Herbert Simon Satisficing and Incrementalism Charles Lindblom Revised Garbage Can Model John Kingdon Participatory Model Elite Theory Political Model Public Choice Theory 9 Rational Model Rational Based on economic principles of marginal Based utility utility Opportunity cost – difference between your 1st and 2nd choices and Effectiveness – the achievement of a common Effectiveness purpose purpose • This is the determination of what point your return This on investment flattens or declines on Essentially the use of Cost Benefit Analysis Simon criticized this Human cognitive limitations make this Human impossible impossible Bounded Rationality/satisficing 10 Satisficing and Incrementalism Satisficing Bounded Rationality – we choose Bounded alternative that is the most good/least bad alternative Incremental Decision Making Only a few alternatives can be considered at Only once once Choices won’t tend to differ dramatically More realistic approach because more More sensitive to timing of policy process sensitive Criticisms Allows the continuation of the status quo Doesn’t promote major fundamental changes 11 Can be addresses through sunset laws Revised Garbage Can Model Revised Claims decision making is neither systematic nor Claims neatly defined – its chaotic neatly Three streams Problem – the understanding of how and why this Problem problem draws attention instead of another problem Political – whether the issue will get attention • Public opinion, election results, ideological shifts Policy – proposals formulated by administrators, Policy researchers, political staffers, policy advocates researchers, It is here where the agenda-setting step of the It policy process becomes evident. policy Need a window of opportunity, i.e. – 9/11 led to Need Patriot Acts Patriot 12 Participatory Model Participatory Assumes diverse group consult and act together Many federal regulations done with way Advantage FDA, EPA, OSHA involve practitioners and other public FDA, input and are handled by advisory boards not Congress input Interest groups provide great deal of information BUT Interest can’t rely too heavily on it – they have an agenda too! can’t This model based on pluralism and democratic This principle of equal and effective participation in the decision making process. the 13 Elite Theory Elite Assumes a select few have privilege to be Assumes involved involved Government for the elite, not the masses Schumpter’s An Elite Theory of Democracy says Schumpter’s elite is based on knowledge, education, status elite Mills’ The Power Elite says decisions aren’t made Mills’ by the electorate but by high-level officials and staff (President, cabinet, agency heads, etc) staff 14 Political Model Political Assumes most powerful coalitions have most Assumes influence influence Participants jockey for power and control to gain Participants ground while causing competition to lose ground ground Support of superiors at all costs No good ideas proposed “I was thinking that same thing” Key is building strong alliances 15 Public Choice Theory Public Based on micro-economics Self-interest determines how decisions are made Bureaucrats will make decisions that minimize Bureaucrats risks and maximize rewards Theory fails to recognize true importance of Theory efficiency, promotes outsourcing and privatization. efficiency, 16 Dysfunctions in Decision Making Dysfunctions Egos get in the way Managers fail to ask rank-and-file workers for input Group-Decision Making Dynamics Power Struggle Conforming to the more aggressive members Groupthink Occurs in highly cohesive groups who feel very secure Primary goal is to maintain power and cohesiveness Occurs with directive leadership, homogeneity of ideals Occurs and background, isolation from outside influences and 17 Dysfunctions in Decision Making Dysfunctions Symptoms of Groupthink Illusion of invulnerability – overestimation of worth Stereotyping – us versus them attitude Rationalization – dismissing warning signs Moral High Ground – has a monopoly on what’s right Self-censorship – not allowed to express doubts Illusion of unanimity – highly unlikely 100% agreement Pressure on group dissenters Pressure Mind guarding – protection of leader from criticism Avoiding Groupthink Leader should not state preferences Have assigned ‘devil’s advocate’ Anonymity Culture promoting debate, analysis and creativity 18 The Consensus Process The Occurs when government and stakeholders work Occurs together to find mutually agreed upon solutions together Guiding Principles Consensus decision making – agreement not majority Consensus vote vote Inclusiveness – all parties represented Accountability – to constituents and process Facilitation – neutral party manages process Flexibility – most suitable solution Shared control – collectively set ground rules Commitment to implementation – everyone responsible 19 The Consensus Process The Stages of the process Before – assess if process is appropriate, who needs to Before be involved, who will facilitate be During – engage in discussions, exchange information, During frame issues, generate and evaluate options, develop mutually agreed upon solution, obtain endorsements of decision decision After – implement agreement, formalize decision and After monitor results monitor Why consensus and not majority vote? Consensus stresses need to be involved, understand Consensus issue, and actively participate in the process issue, Majority vote needs coalitions and networks more than Majority ideas and participation. ideas 20 Next Week… Next Chapter 5 – Politics and Public Administration GUEST SPEAKER!!! 21 ...
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