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Class 5 - Politics and Public Administration (ch 5)

Class 5 - Politics and Public Administration (ch 5) -...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5 Chapter Politics and Public Politics Administration Administration 1 Chapter 5… Chapter Explores in-depth the intersection of politics and Explores administration administration We will discuss… The realities of bureaucratic politics The checks and balances on the system The intersection of politics and administration administration Competence or responsiveness? Competence until presidency of Andrew Competence Jackson – spoils system Jackson Responsiveness focus of spoils system Public management tasks believed to be Public simple and not in need of expertise simple Led to Wilson’s politics-administration Led dichotomy dichotomy Policy determined by political process and Policy implemented by apolitical administrators implemented The intersection of politics and administration administration Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883 Created bipartisan Civil Service Commission Merit based, business-like system • Efficiency is the core • Led to creation of Codes of Ethics Critiques • Promoted mediocrity, incompetence, corruption Led to era of businesslike government • Wilson and Goodnow – science of administration • Focus on efficiency and effectiveness, not politics • Modern PA recognizes separation not possible. Reality of Bureaucratic Politics Reality Modern PA recognizes appointed officials Modern make policy, lower-level officials interpret make FDR’s Great Society Shift from distributive (education) to Shift redistributive (welfare) policies redistributive Post Great Depression – big government This proved Wilson’s politics-adminstration This dichotomy to be unrealistic dichotomy Public Administrators are policymakers, as public Public administration is ultimately the sum of politics and management. and Reality of Bureaucratic Politics Reality Other opposition to Wilson’s dichotomy Appleby – argument about application of Appleby policy are arguments about policy itself policy Waldo – PA research grounded in political Waldo theory theory Selznick – Tennessee Valley Authority – Selznick famous example of agency’s need to cultivate political survival political Simon – facts and administrative realities Simon drive decision-making and value formation drive Reality of Bureaucratic Politics Reality Alternative Theory “Politics” School – politics is major facet Administrators with expertise play major role Administrators in policy process in • Craft legislation • Interpret policy Interpret • Implement policy Administrators‘ role in policy interpretation Administrators‘ allows for use of discretion and need for value-based judgments value-based Impossible to be completely apolitical Impossible • Interest groups, media, citizens bring pressure Reality of Bureaucratic Politics Reality Policy interpretation and implementation Policy are important critical steps are Result – lots of political pressure to agencies Result and administrators and Objective process is critical Logical vs incremental decision making • Logical – intensely analyze each option, Logical associated consequences, etc associated • Incremental – satisfactory and sufficient course of Incremental action within context of time and political limitations, ‘muddling through’ limitations, Reality of Bureaucratic Politics Reality Budgeting – the #1 way to intermingle Budgeting politics and administration!! politics Budget process itself – apolitical, boring Getting the resources – very political Brings up very value-based questions Budget process very interest-oriented process Bureaucratic Decisions often influenced by Bureaucratic politics politics Hiring, awarding contracts Result of building, maintaining relationships Reality of Bureaucratic Politics Reality Administrative Discretion Lowi says don’t give too much • Hard to control ‘street-level bureaucrats’ – those Hard who provide public benefits and maintain public order (Lipsky) order • Center of political debate: (1) scope of government Center is really about function of bureaucracy, (2) extensive power in lives of citizens extensive Wide discretion = policy making • Directed by rules and regulations • These need to be clear and constant Checking Bureaucratic Discretion Checking Administrative Discretion is necessary Kept in check by principles of administrative law The Executive Branch • Steers bureaucracy through presidential Steers appointments appointments • Nixon & Reagan – appointment based on Nixon ideological beliefs rather than expertise ideological Reagan – very little concern with career bureaucrats Nixon – reorganized to utilize political appointees and Nixon control bureaucracy control • Carter – Civil Service Reform – Senior Executive Carter Service Service Higher salary, no civil service protection • Bureaucratic resistance strong/hard to overcome Checking Bureaucratic Discretion Checking Congressional Power Unused Constitution gives power over bureaucracy Determines funding and levels of power Presidents want control but don’t have the Presidents means, Congress has means but no desire means, Judicial branch has to settle the score Iron Triangle Agency, Congress, Interest Group • Every member gets something it needs from another Every member member Agency gets appropriations from congress Congress gets support and information from agency, campaign Congress $$ from interest groups $$ Interest groups get policy and benefits from both Checking Bureaucratic Discretion Checking The Courts Federal Administrative Case Law • Set precedent allowing Congress to delegate Set responsibilities as appropriate responsibilities • This occurs often in order to manage workload and This allow experts to handle issues, within parameters of congressional rules, regulations, and standards congressional Due Process and Bureaucratic Discretion • • 5th and 14th amendments Notable question - can government benefits be Notable discontinued without pre-termination hearing (property interest)? interest)? Welfare – no; social security – no; education – limited • What about liberty interests? What Careful balance between 1st amendment and interfere with job Checking Bureaucratic Discretion Checking Administrative Expediency vs Search and Administrative Seizure Protections – 4th Amendment Seizure Warrants required for administrative, noncriminal Warrants searches searches What about home visits by state agency • Allowed under administration of program (welfare, DCF, Allowed etc) etc) Administrative subpoena powers • Can be used when necessary or related to a matter Can under investigation under Checking Bureaucratic Discretion Checking Tort as a Bureaucratic Check Government can not be sued unless it allows Government itself to be or special circumstances itself • Discretionary government actions exempt with Discretionary exceptions exceptions Damages related to 4th amendment violations If actions were known or should have been known to violate If constitutional rights constitutional • Establishing standing difficult Injury or likelihood of injury Violation of constitutional principle Primary jurisdiction – court or bureaucracy Exhaust all administrative avenues and appeals Next Week… Next Chapter 6 – Intergovernmental Relations Midterm coming soon…October 24th Government Assessment Paper…Nov 7th 16 ...
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