Class 6 - Intergovernmental Relations (ch 6)

Class 6 - Intergovernmental Relations (ch 6) - Chapter 6...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6 Chapter Intergovernmental Intergovernmental Relations Relations 1 Federalism – a fundamental concept concept How is power and responsibility divided How among the national and sub-national government? government? In a federal system, power and In responsibility is divided among levels of government (national, state, local) that generally have separate legislative bodies generally US, Germany, Australia, Canada, India • Often used by nations that formerly were Often separate colonies or nations 2 Federal system Federal Power is decentralized with certain Power functions assigned to different levels of government of National responsibilities at federal level Regional responsibilities at state level Local responsibilities at local level Each level typically has its own Each government structure – legislative body, executive branch, judiciary – and revenue sources 3 Unitary system Unitary In a unitary system, all or most power is In centralized at the national level centralized United Kingdom, France, Turkey, Norway • (UK is now kind of a hybrid, as it has (UK developed some regional parliaments) developed • While there may be regional and local While governments, they typically are weak and dependent on federal government for resources resources If you want to get something done, you If generally have to go to the national government to address the issue Even things like getting a new traffic light 4 American federal system American Policy responsibility is divided between Policy federal, state, and local governments federal, Reflects desire to decentralize power and Reflects retain role of former colonies retain The United States The States Dividing power to avoid tyranny is a Dividing fundamental part of American government and administration and Federalism has major advantages and Federalism drawbacks drawbacks The system is fairly unique and reflects The America’s history America’s 5 Major Advantages of Federalism Major Programs more easily adapted to local needs Regional power centers keep majority in check Encourages the creation and diffusion of Encourages government innovations government Relieves the administrative burden on the central Relieves government government Localizes political conflict, making it more Localizes manageable manageable More opportunities for participation in the political More system system Enables lower levels of government to work together Promotes national economic development 6 Major Disadvantages of Federalism Major Lower level governments typically fail to address Lower external impacts (i.e. – pollution) external Large number of governments results in lack of Large coordination and increased administrative confusion coordination Slows change – ‘one person’s checks and balances Slows is another one’s delay and inaction’ is Local priorities are put above regional or national Local ones ones Great variation = political inequities Decentralization contributes to breakdown of Decentralization administrative accountability administrative 7 Concepts of federalism Concepts Layer cake model - different levels of Layer government have compartmentalized functions; historical but not realistic functions; 8 Concepts of federalism Concepts Marble cake model – functions and Marble responsibilities are mixed, with each level involved in major program areas level 9 Concepts of federalism Concepts Picket fence federalism – responsibility Picket for programs is spread over each level, but there are links between staff who work on policy areas in each level work 10 Federal government Federal Concentrates spending in a few areas – Concentrates health, social security, defense health, Most spending is on entitlement programs Most like Medicare and Social Security, to which individuals are “entitled” by law; fastest growing part of budget fastest Percentage of spending on defense has Percentage fallen over time Entitlements, defense, and interest on the Entitlements, national debt have grown, now about 85% of federal spending of 11 Federal government A major role of the federal government is to major write checks write Most employees manage contracts and Most grants grants A small share of federal employees manage small direct service programs direct The federal budget details what the The government does but not how it does it – most of its major programs are administered by other levels of government by 12 State governments State Institutionally similar to the federal Institutionally government government States concentrate their services on States health, education, prisons, and highways health, States play a major role by receiving and States administering federal grants administering But, federal funds always have strings But, attached; e.g., to receive Medicaid funds, states must provide specified services to specified groups specified 13 Local governments Local Lots of them – over 86,000 in 2002 – includes Lots cities/municipalities, towns, counties, school boards, special districts boards, Focused on direct delivery of services Focused (provided directly to citizens, such as police and fire protection, education, and hospital care) care) Primary spending is on elementary and Primary secondary education, local roads, recreation, health, and utilities health, Mix of responsibilities between local Mix governments and their states varies widely 14 across nation across Tools of government Tools Government has a variety of tools to carry Government out its functions Direct tools: things government does itself – Direct services such as schools and universities, providing income support, offering direct loans, providing police and fire protection loans, Indirect tools: things government provides Indirect through other entities – contracts with private companies, grants to government and nongovernmental partners, vouchers nongovernmental 15 Grants Grants Fiscal federalism – transfer of resources Fiscal between levels of government Grants are the oldest, most widely used Grants tool that the federal government employs to carry out public policy to e.g., Medicaid grants pay majority of costs e.g., via grants for medical care for the poor via Two types of grants: • Categorical grants – for specific purposes • Block grants – more flexibility 16 Categorical Grants Categorical There are two types Project Grants – require recipients to submit Project an application and undergo a review process an • Example – American Recovery and Reinvestment Example Act a.k.a. Stimulus Funding Act Formula Grants – all states meeting Formula predescribed legislative qualifications automatically receive funds based on formulaautomatically based proportionate share based 17 Downside of grants Downside Centralizes authority (he who writes the Centralizes checks calls the shots) checks Can result in funding inefficient/ineffective Can programs programs National rules may not be appropriate for National local conditions local Diffuses accountability and responsibility Can preempt state and local authority Can result in unfunded mandates 18 Why have grant programs? Why Promote economic efficiency and equity in Promote the system the Goals of Grants Correct inefficiencies in the allocation of Correct resources resources • spillover effects (i.e. – pollution) Correct fiscal imbalances • Mismatch of social needs and available resources (i.e. – Mismatch Florida’s above average Medicare population) Florida’s Federal revenue sources more stable • income versus sales tax • More progressive 19 Interlocal Shared Government Interlocal Types of shared services Sharing Personnel • Utilization of part-time personnel saves money Utilization but has management challenges but • Shared personnel between jurisdictions is a Shared better, more manageable solution better, Sharing Equipment • Good option for large, specialized equipment 20 Interlocal Shared Government Interlocal Types of shared services Shared Internal Services • Ideal for functions that require little interaction Ideal with public with • Example – animal shelter Shared External Services • One government unit agrees to provide a One service for another that has been discontinued service • Consolidation of services into one unit • Examples – merging city and county police/fire Examples services services 21 Interlocal Shared Government Interlocal The Challenges Opposition by unions, civil service, longtime government employees Without visible benefits, citizen opposition Without may be high may Local officials may fear loss of control Local (“home rule”) (“home 22 Performance vs Competition Performance The premise of privatization: Employing the private or nonprofit sector to do Employing the work of government the Productivity Competitive Government Dye’s Competitive Federalism – among units of Dye’s government government • Doesn’t really paint government as a Doesn’t competitor competitor Public vs Private Competition - Services Public contracted in to government contracted Public vs Public Competition – Services Public contracted to government by government contracted 23 Government Competition Government Weaknesses of privatization as only solution: Does not ensure meaningful competition Private vendors are not always best at providing Private public services public More creative innovations becoming more More popular popular Government Innovations Open Competition Open Competition in Government Only Expanded Capacity for Competition • Public Authorities or corporations • Ad-hocary 24 Government Competition Government Government Innovations Public Authorities or corporations • Quasi-independent organizations with independent Quasi-independent revenue sources, greater flexibility, fewer constraints revenue Ad-hocary • Temporary work groups to complete tasks typically Temporary reserved for public organizations reserved • Very Flexible Advantages to public-public competition Encourages greater government innovation Improve use of information resources Improve public sector’s competitive image 25 Next week… Next Chapter 7 – Public Performance Midterm – October 24 26 ...
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