Class 7 - Public Performance (ch 7)(1)

Class 7 - Public Performance (ch 7)(1) - Chapter 7 Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7 Chapter Public Performance 1 Total Quality Management (TQM) (TQM) Originally intended for private sector Emphasizes customer satisfaction, excellent Emphasizes service, rapid adjustment to environment service, Method for continuous improvement Essential functions Customer focus Upper-management commitment Participative management Labor-management cooperation Organized analysis Use in public sector highly debated Assumptions of TQM Assumptions Key Elements (Deming & Milokavich) Clear aims and purposes All must learn/live new philosophy and purpose Eliminate focus of cost as element for awards Continuously improve production and service Implement modern training methods Teach leadership Eliminate fear and pleas to workforce, build trust and Eliminate innovation innovation Eliminate obstacles that deprive people of pride Encourage education and development Be sure your actions align! Assumptions of TQM Assumptions Customer Focus Assumes customer is paramount and ultimate judge Assumes of quality of Internal customers (employees) – receive work output Internal in the service or production process in External customers (citizens) – purchase the product Continuous Improvement Dependent on feedback from employees and citizens Enhanced value to customer – new products/services Reduced errors, defects, waste Improved responsiveness and performance Improved productivity and effectiveness Assumptions of TQM Assumptions Top Management Commitment/Leadership Needs strong, long-term commitment from leadership to be Needs successful successful Requires change in bureaucratic culture to become more Requires innovative innovative Empowerment and Teamwork Decision making authority is given to lower level Decision employees employees Increases likelihood of taking ownership Teamwork good approach to overcoming management Teamwork problems problems • • • Vertical teamwork – upper level gives to lower level Horizontal teamwork – spread across groups Interorganizational teamwork – brings all stakeholders in Organizational Responsiveness Organizational Important value in public organizations “bringing government closer to the people” Barriers: Interest Group Politics and Captive Bureaucracy • • • Interest group/political parties desires differ from citizens Captive Agencies – too dependent on political survival Dilemma – citizens don’t always express concerns but Dilemma interest groups very active in political process interest • Solutions: Establish interorganizational teamwork and training for external Establish customers customers • Bring representatives from all groups to the table • Utilize internet-based participation Organizational Responsiveness Organizational Barriers: Expertise and Information Distortion • Bureaucratic expertise is function of organization’s characteristics Bureaucratic and capabilities of members and • Public organization require wide range of specialized skills needed Public to successfully gather, analyze, and use information to effect policy to • Negative consequence – information distortion (purposeful or not) • Solutions: Utilize Vertical Teamwork and Empowerment • Information distortion occurs in vertical hierarchical Information structures where communication is limited by bureaucracy structures • Vertical teams allow for better information sharing • Empowerment leads to higher acceptance of responsibility Empowerment and lower rates of ‘keeping’ negative information from upper management upper • Increases likelihood of effective problem solving between Increases superiors and workers superiors Organizational Responsiveness Organizational Barriers: Specialized Structure and Parochialism • Organizational structures centered on functional differentiation – Organizational specialists and department differ in many ways specialists • Integration is critical to tie specialties to broader organizational goals • Want to avoid parochialism – organization becomes too narrowly Want focused making responsiveness difficult focused • Solutions: Utilize Horizontal Teamwork and Preventing Variation in Utilize Product and Process Product • Departments will learn to cooperate beyond departmental Departments boundaries boundaries • Cross-functional teams will reduce costs and time in Cross-functional producing/delivering services producing/delivering • Too much variation often reduces quality of product Organizational Responsiveness Organizational Barriers: Attribution Error and Management Failure • Attribution theory – how ordinary people attempt to understand the Attribution causes and consequences of events they witness causes • Organizational success result of leadership but failures result of Organizational others others • Hard to know what went wrong if there is always someone else to Hard blame blame • Solutions: Admitting Variations in Employee’s Performance and Admitting Eliminating Numerical Quota Eliminating • TQM assumes it is manager not worker at fault usually • Better to assume that workers and performance varies and Better well-trained dedicated staff is best asset well-trained Organizational Responsiveness Organizational Barriers: Organizational Entrapment and Trained Incapacity • Entrapment – persisting in a failing course of action to justify cost Entrapment and more common in public organizations and • Trained incapacity – repetition of past successful actions regardless Trained of current conditions of • Solutions: Driving out Fear and Continuous Training • All employees should feel comfortable giving ideas and All knowing that everyone makes mistakes sometimes knowing • Training is key, especially in times of change Measuring and Improving Performance Performance Critical to accountability and improvement Measures: Is organization fulfilling mission and objectives, producing Is unintended impacts, responsive to people, productive, and performing well performing Does organization keep within its scope of authority Performance is implied when asking questions about the Performance quality of services quality Provides opportunity to present facts/data rather than Provides perceptions perceptions Managers can use measures to Account for past activities (accountability) Manage current operations (efficiency) Assess progress toward planned objectives (effectiveness) Measuring and Improving Performance Performance Why have performance measures Gather specific information Improve decision making Assess performance (can be used to help motivate) Accountability Improve service delivery Increase public participation Improve civic discourse (citizen communication) Types of Indicators Inputs – quantity of resources given (usually fiscal resources) Outputs – workload (amount of work or number of services) Outcomes – results/quality of services provided (have you met Outcomes your objectives and goals) your Efficiency Indicators – cost/benefit analysis Measuring and Improving Performance Performance Performance measures serve 7 purposes (Behn, 2003) Control - Maintaining managerial control Budget – better performing organizations/programs get more Budget money, some argue this is not efficient money, Motivate – give your staff something to work toward Promote – self promotion difficult in public sector, data helps Celebrate – organizational accomplishments are good! Learn and Improve – you can always do something a little bit Learn better better Measuring and Improving Performance Performance Designing a Performance Measurement System Identify a program to measure - know all components of the Identify program you select program Design a purpose statement – critical! You can’t measure what Design you don’t understand. you Classify program inputs, outputs, outcomes and efficiency Classify indicators Set performance targets – amount of funding to secure, time Set periods, quantities, percentages – quantifiable items periods, Monitor performance – if done continuously, you can take Monitor intermediate steps to improve, be practical/realistic in design intermediate Report performance results - be sure to include key points of Report information and clearly state your comparisons information Conclude with analysis and action – it’s a waste of time if you Conclude don’t do something with it! don’t Measuring and Improving Performance Performance Citizen-Based Performance Measurement Ideal for public sector Including the public can help create better, more participatory Including attitude towards government attitude Requires patience, time, resources, and training The Balanced Scorecard Approach Originated in private sector Four categories: Financial Management, Customer Focus, Four Internal Business Processes, Learning and Growth Internal Translates strategies into clearly defined objectives, measures, Translates performance targets, and initiatives performance Social Aspects of Performance Social Bureau-Pathology Management –Workforce Cooperation Bureaucracy carries reputation of mediocrity Bureaucracy = loss of personal autonomy, office politics, etc Alternative theories to bureaucracy suppressing public Alternative performance performance Model of egalitarian partnership between workers and Model management that encourages sharing of ideas and innovation for the improvement of the organization. for Workforce Motivation and Incentives Taylor’s Scientific Management theories on motivation by money Taylor’s vs Classical management theories on motivation by fear vs Challenged by Hawthorne Experiments, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Challenged Needs, Theory X vs Theory Y Needs, Organizations that can move from Theory X to Theory Y will be Organizations The Big Debate…. The Privatization Contracting-out The complete transfer of a government function to the private The sector sector Relationship is now with private company and consumers Purely financial Private organization works on behalf of government Private organization provides service, customers receive service, Private government oversees entire arrangement government Is the private sector ALWAYS a better, less costly Is performer and provider? performer Next Week… Next MIDTERM (Chapters 1-7 and 11) Government Assessment Paper…Nov 7th 18 ...
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