Exam 2 Guide

Exam 2 Guide - Terms Environmental sustainability...

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Terms Environmental sustainability Maintaining, protecting, and improving environment If we keep living like we are resources are going to one day run out spaceship model ” of Earth; as Progess slopes upward so does resource use; moral theory ( utilitarianism -greatest good for greatest number); technology may provide a solution, we can invent technos that will help LDC countries develop within environmental health standards Fossil Fuels Petroleum, coal, natural gas Vastly extended the amount of available energy but emissions have polluted the environment with carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds Greenhouse effect, smog in cities, relocation of plant/animal species, temp. craziness Greenhouse effect Large amounts of CO 2 accumulate in atmosphere, light rays easily pass a layer of these gases, radiant energy warms earth but heat cannot get back through this layer Must be stopped if we are to continue living on this planet the way we are used to Temp up in some areas, down in others; ag yields up/down depending on location, could lead to partial melting of polar ice caps (sea levels up, potential flooding) Global Warming Increase in earth’s temperature May result from greenhouse effect Examples Deforestation Clearing an areas of forests and trees Depletion of resources, washes away topsoil, no topsoil means conversion to desert bringing famine; no topsoil + global warming could have be awful for agriculture Techno fix of past: England 16 th Century, deforestation as a result of shipbuilding, construction, iron manufacture…forests never fully restored but switch to coal helped Resource depletion often solved by other substitutes o Wood_coal_natural gas_oil_electricity_solar energy_nuclear energy_?? Erosion See deforestation for how it ties in; Montana from Diamond article Alternative Energy Sources Energy other than fossil fuels Nuclear energy (option but problematic) o Costly, not source of primary energy, Uranium supplies limited, produces plutonium, no way to dispose of toxic plutonium Solar energy (good, but costly and inefficient) Other minor sources include wind power, Geothermal, methanol, ethanol regulation, not elimination; minor changes in everyday techno makes big difference (stove, fridge) Conservation doing more with less
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switching from incandescent light bulbs to fluorescent lamps can be applied to commercial buildings o smart site selection, proper orientation of buildings (stay warm/cool as needed) o proper sealing and insulation new technologies can help as well o microprocessor-based integrated controls for heating, ventilation, and cooling Examples for all previous terms Diamond’s Studies: Maya, New Guinea, Tikopia Islands, Pre-modern Japan, Montana Bottom-up (small societies-New Guinea (planting trees for food and lumber, population kept in check), Tikopia islands(killed all pigs on island)) vs. top-down (larger, centrally
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Exam 2 Guide - Terms Environmental sustainability...

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