18_Air_PolutSP2008

18_Air_PolutSP2008 - Lecture 18:Air Pollution and...

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1/9/2008 1 Lecture 18:Air Pollution and Ecological Effects Geography 1000 Terms to Assure Greatness! (on the test anyway…) • Donora, PA (issue and date?) p. 543-544 • Photchemical smog p. 545, temperature inversion p. 545, primary and secondary air pollutants p. 547, what is radon and why must you be aware of this gas? p. 549 • Mexico City case study p. 548 • Acid Rain/ ph scale p. 551-554 • Effects of Acid Rain (lecture and 559-560 • Clean Air Act and date p. 561 • How does a catalytic converter work? p. 563 “If we are ever going to deliver true environmental benefits with lower emissions…we’ve got to convince the federal government to relax the nitrogen oxides standards” GM Vice Chairman Harry Pearce, reported by the Associated Press on January 1, 2000
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1/9/2008 2 • ―It isn’t the pollution that’s harming the environment. It’s the impurities in our air and water that are doing it.‖ – Dan Quayle Vice President Under George H.W. Bush Only if citizens (us!) convey our concern will we get results! What is air pollution? Contamination of the air by noxious gases and minute particles of solid and liquid matter (particulates) in sufficient concentrations to endanger health of organisms. Air pollution can be found indoors and outdoors but the compounds are often different. Sources of Outside Air Pollution Combustion of gasoline and other hydrocarbon fuels in cars, trucks, and airplanes Burning of fossil fuels (oil, coal, and dinosaur bones) Insecticides Herbicides Everyday radioactive fallouts Dust from fertilizers Mining operations Livestock feedlots
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1/9/2008 3 Air Pollution Types Covered in this lecture (plenty more … but, frankly, these are on the test!) Ozone and the difference between stratospheric and tropospheric ozone Acid Rain —sources and effects Photochemical smog – Inversion layers and why smog is worse in some cities than others with similar releases. Greg, What are some of your favorite pollutants? • Well Paulie, I think it is useful to consider pollutants may either be primary pollutants or secondary pollutants. Primary pollutants include particulates (smoke, dust), Hydrocarbons (VOCS), Carbon Monoxide, Lead, and Nitrogen Oxides. Secondary Pollutants are compounds such as sulfer dioxide which COMBINE with nitrogen oxides, VOCs, light, and water (water vapor) to result in ozone, PANs (peroxyacetyl nitrates), and sulfuric or nitric acids.
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1/9/2008 4 Volatile Organic Compounds altered by light and contact with water vapor to form Ozone, PANs and sulfuric and nitric acids Toxic Emissions ARE down per CAR but more cars are on the road • BUT from 1970 to 1990, the number of vehicle miles/year in America has DOUBLED from 1 trillion miles/year to 2 trillion miles/year. • The main means of reduction is the catalytic
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18_Air_PolutSP2008 - Lecture 18:Air Pollution and...

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