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Chapter 23 - http/books.google.com/books...

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http://books.google.com/books? id=UCUxpgfcoNsC&pg=PA433&lpg=PA433&dq=8.%09Critically+summarize+the+difficulties+encountered+in+choosing+taxon omic+criteria&source=bl&ots=qs4W6itscP&sig=wZjZ3Qsc9sYXvVCAzj8bStty2Ww&hl=en&ei=JhirTtznEIXc0QGP8PXqDg&s a=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=8.%09Critically%20summarize%20the %20difficulties%20encountered%20in%20choosing%20taxonomic%20criteria&f=false Chapter 23: Understanding Diversity: Systematics 1. Define biological diversity or biodiversity a. The variety of living organisms and the ecosystems they are part of. 2. Define systematics. a. The scientific study of the diversity of organisms and their evolutionary relationships. 3. Define evolution. a. The accumulation of inherited changes within populations over time.  4. Define taxonomy. a. The science of naming, describing, and classifying of organisms. 5. Define binomial nomenclature. a. Each species is assigned a unique two-part name.  6. Define genus a. The first part of a binomial scientific name is a noun. Always capitalized and italicized.  7. Define specific epithet. a. The second part of the name is the adjective modifying the noun. Not capitalized, but italicized. 8. Name the taxonomic levels in order. a. Domain, kingdom, phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species 9. Define taxon.  a. A formal grouping of organisms at any given level, such as species, genus, phylum.  10. What are the kingdoms? a. Plantae, Animalia, Protista (by some), Fungi, Prokaryote 11. What are the two major groups of prokaryotes? a. Bacteria and Archaea 12. What are the three domains? a. Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya 13. Where are protists assigned? a. They are assigned to super groups that more accurately reflect evolutionary relationships. 14. Define clade. a.  A group of organisms that share characteristics inherited from a common ancestor. 15. Define PhyloCode. a. Organisms are grouped into clades based on evolutionary relationships. 16. Define phylogenetic trees. a. Graphically represent hypothesized evolutionary relationships among organisms that have a common ancestor.
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