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14_Infectiousdiseases - Lecture 14 Influenza Pandemics of...

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1/9/2008 1 Lecture # 14 : Influenza Pandemics of the 20 th Century and implications for Avian Flu Lecture Information Courtesy of 1) David K. Shay Influenza Branch Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2) Healthpolitics.com (Dr. M. McGee, 3) NYTimes Feb 19‟05 -12 AND 4) BEST: 4) Rashid A. Chotani, MD, MPH Global Infectious Disease Surveillance & Alert System, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Geography 1000 Spring 2008 Terms of Wisdom and Growth Avian flu virus (H5N1) p.385-386 What and where is CDC p. 387 Life expectancy in 1955 and 2007 p. 387 “Cultural Hazards” of mortality (US top 3) p. 388 Infectious and Parasitic Diseases and share of global mortality p. 389 AIDS, TB, and Malaria (effect, vectors of each, and yearly deaths) p. 389 2006 “Roll Back malaria” campaign and WHO efforts p. 399 Globalization and Disease essay p. 400 Definitions Epidemic a located cluster of cases Pandemic worldwide epidemic Antigenic drift Changes in proteins by genetic point mutation & selection Ongoing and basis for change in vaccine each year Antigenic shift Changes in proteins through genetic reassortment Produces different viruses not covered by annual vaccine
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1/9/2008 2 3 types of the influenza virus: A, B and C reflect differences in the M protein on the envelope that contains the virus ‘A’ influenza viruses cause human and bird flu outbreaks contain 8-segment RNA strand segments break apart during replication to mix and reassort potential for constant evolution is built in sub- typed based on activity in envelope‟s glycoproteins: 1] hemagglutinin activity (H): 16 known varieties 2] neuraminidase activity (N): 9 known varieties Shorthand names have an “H” and “N” number (H1N1) Understanding Bird Flu and the Influenza Virus Influenza Virus Three types Surface antigens Influenza A subtypes Source: L. Stammard, 1995 Influenza Virion
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