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FIRST TEST GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY BIOLOGY 265 SPRING 2006 FORM 1 l. We observe that when invertebrate cells, like those of a copepod, are placed a lower salinity medium, ammonia excretion increases. What is happening ? a. more amino acids are metabolized and cellular osmolarity is reduced b. more amino acids are produced within the cell c. Sodium is rapidly transported from the cell d. the Krebs cycle essentially runs backwards e. NAD+ is replenished 2. When oxygen is not present, lactate is produced in muscle cells. What is the function of this reaction, and why is it necessary for metabolism ? 3. Two isozymes of LDH have different Kms for pyruvate. Form 1 has a Km of 0.3 mM pyruvate and Form 2 has a Km of 0.5 mM pyruvate. At 0. 25 mM pyruvate, which has the higher reaction rate ? 4. Three digestive enzymes, trypsin, chymotrypsin and pepsin all degrade protein. Which one has the highest reaction velocity at pH 3.0 ? 5. Why is myoglobin an affective intracellular store for oxygen ? a. it has a much higher Km for oxygen than hemoglobin b. it has a much lower Km for oxygen than hemoglobin c. it is too large a molecule to leave the cell d. is has a much lower affinity for oxygen than hemoglobin. 6. In energy catabolism, electrons are harvested and shuttled to the electron transport chain. In what part of the cycle are the most electrons harvested ?
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7. For red muscle fibers, which of the following are true ? a myoglobin levels are higher than in white muscle
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