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B265FT12F01 - First Hourly Exam Key BIL 265 General...

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Unformatted text preview: First Hourly Exam Key - BIL 265 General Physiology - 20 September 2001 1. The most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere is A. Oxygen B. Hydrogen C. Carbon Dioxide D . Nitrogen E. Argon P 2. As one moves higher in the atmosphere A. The partial pressure of Nitrogen increases. B. The partial pressure of each gas remains constant. C. The percentage of each gas decreases in direct proportion to each other. D. The percentage of oxygen decreases in inverse proportion to percent Nitrogen. E . The percentage of each gas remains constant. 3. What effect does the presence of water vapor have on the partial pressure of oxygen? A. The partial pressure decreases relative to Nitrogen. B. The partial pressure remains constant. C. The partial pressure increases relative to Nitrogen. D . The partial pressure decreases in the same proportion as that of Nitrogen. E. None of the above. 4. What is the SI unit of pressure? A. Pounds per square meter. B. Pounds per cubic foot. C. Newtons per cubic meter. D . Newtons per square meter. (Actually, the SI unit is the Pascal, which is one Newton per square meter. But, this is still the best answer of those offered.) E. Newtons per kilogram. 5. When a gas is at equilibrium with free water. A. No gas molecules are moving between the gas and the water. B. More gas is moving into the water than out of the water. C. Gas is moving in and out of the water at the same rate. D. More gas is moving out of the water than into the water. E . None of the above. 6. As temperature rises in a given body of water A. A given body of water holds a lower concentration of oxygen. B. A given body of water holds a higher concentration of oxygen. C. Oxygen has a greater tendency to diffuse across a gill surface into an animal. D. Carbon dioxide has a greater tendency to diffuse through a gill into an animal. E . A given body of water holds less of each solid in solution. 7. If gas exchange was the only environmental factor of concern, a fish that moved from salt water to fresh water would (BAD QUESTION). A. B. C. D. E. Want to increase the surface area of its gills. Want to increase its hematocrit Want to increase the amount of DPG in its blood cells. A and B All of the above 8. How can the tension of carbon dioxide in sea water remain constant even though the carbon dioxide content varies almost twofold? A. Gas tension does not contribute to overall gas content in a fluid. B. The overall content of CO2 is so small that it has no significant effect on tension. C. Most of the CO 2 is in the form of bicarbonate. D. Carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere varies more than two-fold. E . The solubility of CO2 is 30 times greater than oxygen. 9. How do spiders extend their legs? A. They use extensor muscles to directly increase the angle between leg segments. B. They use hydrostatic pressure to indirectly decrease the angle between leg segments. C. They use hydraulic pressure to indirectly increase the angle between leg segments. D. They use hydrostatic pressure to indirectly increase the angle between leg segments. E . They use retractor muscles to directly decrease the angel between leg segments. 10. How does the content of carbon dioxide in water influence pH? A. Carbon dioxide disassociates releasing hydrogen ions into the water. B. Carbon dioxide enters the Krebs cycle and increases pH. C. Carbon dioxide combines with water to produce carbonic acid which lowers pH. D. Carbon dioxide reacts with oxygen and lowers pH. E . Carbon dioxide is an acid that directly lowers pH. 11. Assuming the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide are equal in a gas mixture, which gas will diffuse more quickly into water? Why? (BAD QUESTION). A. Oxygen because it is has a lower molecular weight than carbon dioxide. B. Oxygen because it is more soluble in water than carbon dioxide. C. Carbon dioxide because it has larger molecular weight than oxygen. D. Carbon dioxide because it has a smaller molecular weight than oxygen. E . Carbon dioxide because it is more soluble in water than oxygen. 12. Bi-directional fluid flow is less common in aquatic respiratory systems than in air-based respiratory systems because A. Counter current exchange is more efficient in water than in air. B. Water is much more dense and viscous than air. C. Air is more expensive to accelerate than water. D. No good mechanical reason, just an historical artifact. E . The partial pressure of oxygen is lower in air than in water. 13. What is size limit of most organisms that rely solely on diffusion for gas exchange (no specialized gas exchange organs)? A. A few millimeters, but only if their metabolic rate is low. B. A few microns, but only if metabolic rate is very low. C. A few millimeters with an average metabolic rate. D. None, the presence of respiratory organs is not correlated with body size. E . Approximately one cubic meter. 14. Why are respiratory organs often anatomically intimate with the feeding apparatus in aquatic organisms (e.g., fish and clams)? A. Gas exchange and filter feeding performance both benefit from increased flow rate over a given surface. B. Both require enormous surface area to volume ratios. C. No functional reason, just historical artifact. D. Gas exchange and filter feeding performance both benefit from counter current flow designs. E . Gas exchange and filter feeding performance both benefit from bi-directional flow. 15. What is the advantage of countercurrent flow over concurrent flow in gill design? A. It decreases the energetic cost of accelerating fluid. B. It increases the rate of oxygen diffusion over the entire gill. C. It increases the amount of oxygen that diffuses into the blood per liter of water that passes the gills. D. It decreases the amount of carbon dioxide that diffuses into the blood per liter of water that passes the gills. E . There is no functional advantage to one over the other. 16. How are highly active insects designed to get adequate oxygen to their tissues? A. They develop a ventilation lung. B. They increase the number and size of spiracles in the cuticle. C. They ventilate their tracheal system with air sacs. D. They reduce the number of spiracles to increase control of internal gas mixtures. E . They keep their spiracles permanently open. 17. Among salamanders, what factor or factors would likely increase the likelihood that lungs would be lost during evolution. A. Large body size. B. Low metabolic rate. C. Habit of living in tunnels underground. D. Small body size. E. B & D 18. The dead space in a human lung A. Varies with metabolic rate. B. Is of constant volume in a given individual at all times. C. Is of great advantage during exercise. D. Is only present during exercise. E . None of the above. 19. You are studying the respiratory system of animal X that has ventilatory lungs for gas exchange. When you decrease the partial pressure of oxygen in the air mixture it is breathing, its ventilation rate increases. What does this tell us? A. The animal is using carbon dioxide receptors to control ventilation rate. B. The animal not using carbon dioxide receptors to control ventilation rate. C. The animal is using both carbon dioxide and oxygen receptors control ventilation rate. D. Nothing about how ventilation rate is controlled - need additional data. E . None of the above. 20. How do the shells of chicken's eggs change when they are raised at altitude for multiple generations? Why? A. The shells become thinner to allow gasses to diffuse in and out more readily. B. The shells become thicker to prevent too much water loss. C. The number and size of pores in the shell increase to allow gasses to facilitate better gas exchange. D . The number and size of pores in the shell decrease to prevent too much water loss. E. B and D 21. The Bohr Effect refers to A. The increase in the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin in response to lower pH. B. The decrease in the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin in direct response to increase levels of carbon dioxide. C. The decrease in the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin in response to higher pH. D . The decrease in the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin in response to lower pH E. The increase in the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin in direct response to increase levels of carbon dioxide. 22. One observes the root effect A. When both acid sensitive and acid insensitive hemoglobin are present. B. When carbon dioxide levels increase in the blood of certain fish. C. When the ph of the blood drops in blood of certain fish. D. A and B E . All of the above. 23. The major advantage of having your pigments in corpuscles rather than in solution is A. you can have larger hemoglobin molecules without effecting colloidal pressure in the blood. B. you can control the physical environment to which the hemoglobin is exposed. C. you can expose the hemoglobin to the respiratory surface in capillaries. D. you can run your circulatory system at a higher pressure. E . you can alter the affinity of hemoglobin in the entire circulatory system at one time. 24. Which vertebrates have blood cells with a nucleus. A. Only mammals B. All amniotes C. Birds D. All but teleost (actinopterygian) fishes E . None of the above. 25. An oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve? A. Describes the total amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin under a given partial pressure oxygen. B. Describes the total amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin in response to changing the partial pressure oxygen. C. Describes the percentage oxygen bound to hemoglobin in response to changing the partial pressure oxygen. D . Describes the percentage of hemoglobin binding sites filled with oxygen in response to changing the partial pressure oxygen. E . Describes the total amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin when exposed to a given amount of oxygen molecules. 26. Increased concentrations of DPG A. Decrease the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen B. Are found in fetal blood relative to maternal blood in mammals C. Increase the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen D. A and B E . B and C 27. Myoglobin A. Is a blood pigment found only in invertebrates. B. Has four equal subunits. C. Is found in vertebrate muscles. D. Has a lower affinity for oxygen than hemoglobin. E . Is found only in blood corpuscles. 28. Hemoglobin facilitates the diffusion A. of blood into the lungs. B. of oxygen across cell membranes. C. of hydrogen ions across cell membranes. D. oxygen more readily, the larger the size of the hemoglobin molecule. E . None of the above. 29. How can the measured pH of blood in different animals vary more than the deviation from neutrality? A. The preferred body temperature of animals varies a great deal. B. The carbonic acid cycle C. The density of hemoglobin varies almost ten fold. D. A and C E . None of the above 30. Carbonic Anhydrase A. Is a surfactant that prevents the collapse of alveoli in amniote lungs. B. Is an enzyme that allows the Bohr effect to influence oxygen delivery rates to tissues. C. Is found mainly within blood corpuscles rather than the plasma D. A and B E . B and C 31. The oxygen carrying capacity of a circulatory system can be increased by A. Decreasing cardiac output. B. Decreasing the hematocrit C. Decreasing the heart rate. D. A and C E . None of the above. 32. If I want to calculate the volume of your interstitial fluid, I need to perform a dilution experiment or experiments with A. A substance that will only pass between the plasma and interstitial fluids. B. A substance that will not pass out of the plasma. C. A substance that will pass into all fluids the body. D. A and C E . A and B 33. Systemic blood pressure remains relatively steady while it cycles in the heart because A. The left and right sides of the heart beat alternately B. The viscosity of the blood is too high to allow large changes in pressure C. The arteries are elastic and dampen the pressure changes coming out of the heart. D. A and C E . B and C 34. Differences in mass specific metabolism seen among mammals is reflected by A. Changes in the relative size of the heart. B. Decreasing heart rate with increasing body size C. Increasing lung complexity with increasing body size D. Increasing ventilatory rates with increasing body size E . None of the above. 35. If you want to design a blood vessel so that it can take twenty times the normal pressure without rupturing (BAD QUESTION) A. B. C. D. E. You would increase the wall of the vessel 10 fold You would increase the radius of the vessel 10 fold You would increase the radius of the vessel two fold A and B A and C 36. The density of open capillaries in the muscle of an exercising guinea pig is A. Approximately 3000 per square centimeter B. Approximately 3000 per square millimeter C. Approximately 100 per square millimeter D. Approximately the same as that seen in an exercising elephant E . None of the above 37. The circulatory system of an insect A. Is used to transport gasses to and from tissues. B. Is full of plasma C. Is full of hemolymph D. Is a "closed" system E . None of the above 38. A circulatory system with a ventral heart, anterior ventral blood flow and posterior dorsal blood flow is a characteristic of A. Amniotes only B. Fish only C. All vertebrates D. All animals with circulatory systems E . Cephalochordates only 39. The rate at which oxygen at a given partial pressure will cross a semi-permeable membrane (BAD QUESTION) A. B. C. D. E. Increases with increasing surface area. Increases with decreasing membrane thickness Decreases with temperature A and B All of the above 40. Lizards cannot run very far (relative to mammals) without stopping because A. They have too many arteries B. They cannot breath and run at the same time C. They use the same body wall muscles to breath and run D . B and C E. All of the above Second Hourly Exam - BIL 265 General Physiology - Thursday, 18 October 2001 Name_____________________________ Soc Sec # __________________________ 1. Hyperosmotic A. The body fluids of a goldfish relative to water in which it lives. B. Marine water relative to the body fluids of the teleost fish that live in it. C. Fresh water relative to the body fluids of the teleost fish that live in it. D. A & B E. All of the Above 2. When a whale gives an extra burst of speed to avoid a ship, it does not overheat because A. It does not have to raise its metabolic rate to move. B. It’s circulatory system can bypass its blubber to dump heat from the circulatory system. C. The presence of a counter current exchange system in its flippers allows the rate of heat dissipation to compensate for any increase in metabolism. D. A & B. E. All of the Above. 3. In animal X, we conduct an experiment where we feed half of the individuals their standard diet and half of them food with half the calorie content of their normal diet (by volume). We give the animals free access to food and monitor how much they eat. What might we determine? A. Whether or not appetite is driven by the caloric content of the food. B. Whether or not appetite is driven by the volume of food intake. C. Whether or not a given trace element is of importance in the diet of animal X. D. A & B. E. None of the above. 4. Animal A has a lower lower critical temperature than animal B. This could be caused by A. Animal A having a lower resting metabolic rate than animal B. B. Animal A having a lower thermal conductance than animal B. C. Animal A having a smaller body mass than animal B. D. A & B. F. All of the above. 5. The Pancreas. A. Produces B. Produces C. Produces D. B & C. E. All of the enzymes that work best at a high pH. enzymes that help break down proteins. enzymes that help break down fat. above. 6. You find a higher concentration of sodium in the body fluids a barnacle X relative to the water it is living in (tide pool). This tells you A. The barnacle X is an osmoregulator. B. The barnacle X is an osmoconformer. C. The skin of barnacle X is capable of active transport of sodium into the barnacle. D. A & C. E. None of the Above. 7. Suction feeding performance can be improved over evolutionary time by A. Reducing the area of the gape opening but keeping the volume of the mouth and throat constant. B. Increasing the volume of the mouth and throat but keeping the area of the gape constant. C. Increasing the volume of the mouth and throat in proportion to gape area. D. A and B E. A and C 8. A cockroach removes most of the water from its feces A. By active transport of potassium out of the malpighian tubules. B. By active transport of water out of the malpighian tubules. C. By active transport of water out of the rectum. D. By active transport of solutes into the lumen outside the rectum. E. By reducing the ultrafiltration rate of the malpighian tubules. 9. You have animal x locomoting on a treadmill (so you can control speed and distance traveled) and hooked up to gas analyzers that measure rate of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Assuming you first measure these rates while the animal is at rest… A. You can calculate the cost of transport as a function of speed. B. You can calculate cost of transport as a function of gate (e.g. walk vs. gallop). C. You can calculate how much of energy used for transport comes from fat vs. glycogen. D. A & B. E. All of the above. 10. Many fish can rely on anaerobic metabolism for extended periods because A. They have exceptional blood buffering capacity to avoid acidosis. B. They quickly convert the lactic acid produced back to glycogen in the liver to avoid acidosis. C. They use glycoproteins to buffer the blood to avoid alkalosis. D. They store the lactic acid in their tissues to avoid acidosis. E. They store the lactic acid in their tissues to avoid alkalosis. 11. The basic function of excretory systems include A. Removal of essential trace elements needed for normal metabolism. B. Maintenance of proper levels of water content in the body. C. Removal of undesirable substances (like metabolic end products and poisons). D. B and C E. All of the above. 12. Kangaroo Rats A. Can rely solely on metabolic water for hydration. B. Convert nitrogenous waste to uric acid to conserve water. C. Lose most of their body water by sweating (evaporation off skin to keep cool). D. A and B. E. All of the above. 13. We perform an experiment where we cut off the blood supply to the flight muscles of a moth and it can no longer fly. We can conclude A. The flight muscles are aerobic and need oxygen to contract. B. The flight muscles need to be cooled in order to contract. C. The flight muscles need glycogen in order to contract. D. All of the above. E. None of the above – we need more data to test any of these hypotheses. 14. Experiments on iguanas infected with a nasty pathogenic bacteria (pseudomonas) indicate that A. Fever in mammals is caused by bacteria. B. Fever in mammals is a response to the presence of certain bacteria. C. Fever can help kill some pathogens and is thus beneficial. D. A and B E. B and C 15. Male Emperor Penguins have to spend more than two months in the middle of the Antarctic winter brooding their eggs without eating. How the heck to those guys do it?? A. They rely on large glycogen stores for energy to stay warm. B. They huddle together in large groups to conserve body heat. C. They drastically lower their core body temperature to reduce the need to metabolic heat. D. A and B. E. All of the above. 16. In extreme temperatures (hot or cold), why are smaller mammals generally under more thermal stress than large ones? A. They have lower thermal inertia. B. They have higher metabolic rates. C. They have a greater surface area to volume ratio. D. A and C. E. All of the above. 17. Brown Fat A. Is used solely to generate metabolic heat. B. Is brown because it is full of mitochondria. C. Is brown because it is full of sugar. D. A and B E. All of the above 18. Experiments on crocodilians (alligators, caiman and crocodiles) indicate that A. Lowered heart rate is a normal res...
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