SCIENCE - of thought. * English doctor, philosopher, and...

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SCIENCE, PHILOSOPHY, AND REASON * While all of the political upheaval was going on with Charles I, scientists and philosophers were using the new freedoms to break new ground * By discovering the laws of motion and gravitation that governed the movements of heavenly and earthly bodies, Sir Isaac Newton had revealed an orderly, clockwork universe regulated by rational principles. * People came to believe that the human intellect could discover natural laws that would solve social, political, and economic problems. Enlightenment, or Age of Reason. * Three major thinkers: * German philosopher and writer Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) * Kant’s philosophy held that knowledge is a combination of sensation and understanding, a synthesis of sensual perception and the principles, or laws,
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Unformatted text preview: of thought. * English doctor, philosopher, and writer John Locke , (16321704) * Locke, who has been called the founder of the analytic philosophy of mind, published the Two Treatises of Government , which disputed the divine right of kings and popularized the idea of natural rights. * Scottish philosopher and economist Adam Smith (17231790) * The economist Smith, in his book The Wealth of Nations , proposed that even economics is governed by a system of natural laws that work in an ordered and rational way, if not interfered with by governments and monopolies. * There are three major divisions of Enlightenment literature: the Age of Dryden, the Age of Pope, and the Age of Johnson....
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