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Unformatted text preview: Tony Dang Ted Espenschied Chemistry 102L Final Review Sheet Experiment 9 – Datastudio Tutorial 1. Manipulating Tables 2. Labeling Axes 3. Creating new tables 4. Creating displays 5. Exporting pictures correctly as JPEG files 6. Understand modes of calibration 7. Finding sensors 8. Performing linear regressions 9. Using the calculate feature 10. Renaming Graphs, Scaling graphs correctly 11. Significant Figures!!! Experiment 10 – Ideal Gases 1. What was the purpose of this experiment? a. Examine the relationship between P and V (boyle’s law) and P ant T (Gay) b. Determine Gas constant c. Determine Absolute Zero 2. Properties of Gases and What is an ideal gas? What is STP? 3. Gas Laws (Boyles, Charles, Gay‐Lussac’s, Ideal) a. Know qualitatively how one variable changing can affect another , also know how to calculate unknown quantities from the gas laws b. Meaning of direct vs. indirect relationships (inverse) c. What do graphs of inverse and direct relationships look like i. Independent variable(x) – variable that is manipulated ii. Dependant variable (y) – variable that changes b/c other one is manipulated 4. How does Density Change with temperature? (indirect relationship) 5. What is absolute zero? a. Temperature where gas has zero pressure b. How did you determine this from exp 10? Plot T vs. P and extrapolate 6. Calculations a. Know how to manipulate P vs. T and P vs. V graphs to get gas constant value with known amount of gas b. Temperatures in ideal gas laws or other laws need to be in KELVIN! Tony Dang Ted Espenschied Experiment 11 – Intermolecular Forces 1. Purpose of Experiment a. Finding heat of vaporization of various solutions by seeing how long they take to evaporate and Establish a relationship between IMF and trend seen in Hvap b. How do functional groups change Hvap? 2. What is Heat of Vaporization? 3. Know how IMF relates to Maxwell distribution graph 4. What are the intermolecular forces? What about intramolecular? Which are stronger? a. London, Hydrogen Bonding (strongest), and Dipole‐Dipole (InterMF) b. Covalent and Ionic are intramolecular forces (stronger than InterMF) c. How do these affect melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure, volatility and other physical properties? d. Looking at Lewis structures and VSEPR theory to determine appropriate IMF +polarity 5. How does shape affect IMF and physical properties? 6. How does temperature change during vaporization? 7. Know how to read branched diagrams for organic chemistry 8. Calculations a. Using CC Equation b. Know how variables change qualitatively c. How did you get Hvap from plotting variables in this equation? Which two did you plot? Experiment 12 – Colligative Properties 1. Purpose of experiment a. Determining the molar mass and ultimately the identity of an unknown solute added to a solvent by analysis of warming curves before and after addition of unknown to solvent b. Why was ice added? 2. What are colligative properties? Examples? a. Freezing pt depression, boiling pt elevation, osmotic pressure, Vapor pressure lowering 3. Know how to read warming curves and cooling curves a. What is a warming curve? What are the parts? b. What is a cooling curve? What are the parts? 4. Know how freezing point changes qualitatively as solute concentration changes 5. What is triple point? 6. What did you graph and how did you determine the freezing point of solvent and solution? 7. Calculations a. Molality b. Molar mass of unknown added to solvent c. Calculating Freezing Point d. Colligative property law (T = km) Tony Dang Ted Espenschied Experiment 13 – Chemical Kinetics 1. Purpose of Experiment a. Determine reaction order of reaction between CV and NaOH b. Determine rate constant and rate law c. Two methods – initial rates and integrated rate laws d. Use Beer’s Law i. How do variables qualitatively relate to one another? ii. What is a standard curve/why did you create one? Establishing how absorbance of a solution of known concentration changes so you can later go back and determine the concentration of an unknown solution from absorbance readings 2. What is kinetics? a. What is a reaction rate? What is a rate law? What does each part mean? Units? b. What is a kinetic curve? c. Know qualitatively what is meant by 0, 1st, and 2nd order reaction with respect to concentration and time d. Given a rate law, know how rate change as concentrations change e. Factors That affect rate of reaction – temperature, concentration, catalyst, and particle size 3. Why does CV absorb light? (Conjugation) 4. Why could you use the colorimeter in this experiment? 5. Integrated rate law – How could you tell if reaction was 0 1st, 2nd order? a. C vs. t, lnC vs. t, and 1/C vs. t b. How could you determine rate constant from your graph? Did you have to take anything into account? 6. Be familiar with dilutions and how to calculate concentrations of diluted solutions (M1V1 = M2V2) 7. Know how to find reaction order and rate constant from analyzing initial rates 8. Why did use two methods? What is it supposed to show? Experiment 14 – Chemical Equilibrium (Hell week) 1. Purpose of Experiment a. Determining Equilibrium constant of a reaction b/w Fe(NO3)3 and NaSCN to form FeNCS2+ by making two sets of solutions (each with five), one to create a standard calibration curve (use of Beer’s law) and the other set to determine equilibrium concentrations 2. What is chemical equilibrium? How are reaction rates involved? 3. Know Le Chatlier’s principle and which side of a reversible reaction is favored 4. Using ICE tables to solve for equilibrium concentrations and equilibrium constant 5. Why can colorimetry be used to determine concentration at equilibrium and Keq? 6. What do Keq values mean with respect to products and reactants? If Keq is large, which is favored? Tony Dang Ted Espenschied Experiment 15 – Standardization of NaOH solution 1. Purpose of Experiment a. Determine actual concentration of prepared NaOH solution by titrating with a primary standard (KHP) b. Why was Water boiled? Why was KHP dried? 2. What is a titration? What is an analyte? What is a titrant? 3. What are indicators? Why do they work? Why was Phenolphthalein used? 4. Know how to dilute solutions 5. Why weren’t solid NaOH pellets used? 6. What is Molarity? What is Normality? 7. What is a primary standard? What are its benefits? 8. Know that mols acid = mols base at equivalence point 9. What is weighing by difference? 10. Be familiar with the terms: standardization, equivalence point, end point, primary standard, neutralization, 11. Know what graphs of titrations of WA/WB, WA/SB, WB/SA, SB/SA look like 12. What do acid base reactions produce as products? 13. Know the difference b/w monoprotic, diprotic, triprotic, polyprotic species 14. Differentiate between strong acids and weak acids – properties in titrations Experiment 16 –Identification of an Unknown Acid 1. Purpose of the experiment a. Determine the identity of an unknown acid by titration with prepared NaOH solution from exp 15 and graphical analysis of equivalence points by performing a first derivative analysis of a pH vs. volume graph (titration curve) 2. Know how to identify regions in the titration curve, specifically: equivalence point, where mols acid = mols base, where pKa can be found, inflection point, where you can calculate pH exactly, where pH is governed by excess titrant 3. Relationship between Ka, pKa, Kb, pKb, and Kw/pKw 4. Know roughly where end points occur with titrations of WA/WB, WA/SB, WB/SA, SB/SA 5. Know difference between strong acid and weak acid 6. What is a Zwitterion? 7. Understand what Ka of acid represents and what large/small values mean. Also pKa 8. Know Henderson‐Hasselbach equation – what does it tell you? What can you calculate from it? 9. Know how to determine molecular weight, pKa, pH of unknown acid from given information 10. Using modified ICE tables for Weak acids ...
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- Fall '08