Covalent Bond Angles and Lengths

Covalent Bond Angles and Lengths - tetrahedron (109.5...

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Covalent Bond Angles and Lengths The major elements found in biological material can be remembered with the acronym SPONCH. Covalent bonds form when two atoms come close together and share their electrons. In a single bond one electron from each atom is shared. In a double bond two electrons from each atom are shared. Covalent bonds have a strength of 90 kcal/mole both in a vacuum and in water. The SPONCH elements are shown in typical bonding states ( Fig. A. ). Methane (CH 4 ), ammonia (NH 3 ), Water (H 2 O), Sulfuric Acid (H 2 SO 4 ), and Phosphoric Acid (H 3 PO 4 ). Note that each of these molecules displays bond angles close to those found in a
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Unformatted text preview: tetrahedron (109.5 degree)( Fig.B. ). The unshared pairs of electrons in ammonia and water serve to complete the vertices of the tetrahedral structure. Interactive molecules . Sulfates and phosphates also show tetrahedral structure ( Fig. A. ). H 2 S however has a bond angle of 92 degrees. Bond lengths are the distance between nuclei of bonded atoms. By adding the covalent radius ( Fig. C ) of the atoms participating in the bond the covalent bond length can be determined. For example a C-C bond has a length of 0.15 nm while a C-O bond has a length of 0.143 nm....
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This document was uploaded on 11/03/2011 for the course BIOLOGY MCB2010 at Broward College.

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