chrosome structure and transposable elements lecture 13 and 14

Chrosome structure and transposable elements lecture 13 and 14

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Unformatted text preview: Chromosome Structure and Transposable Elements Chapter 11 Organization of DNA in Chromosomes Most Prokaryotes circular one copy double stranded Odd prokaryotes more than one linear 11.3 p.288 HU protein Prokaryotic chromosome E. coli : 4.6 Mb circular chromosome DNA length is 1000 times length of the cell "SUPERCOILED" Gyrase relaxed Increased supercoiling DNA gyrase 11.2 p.287 Negative supercoiling Tends to open double helix Makes transcription easier Eukaryotic Chromosome much more complex chemical composition chromatin DNA proteins histones nonhistone chromosomal proteins Histone proteins-form nucleosome "basic" proteins 20 30% arginine and lysine Histones: H1 1 H2a 2 H2b 2 H3 2 H4 2 http://www.callutheran.edu/Academic_Programs/Departments/BioDev/omm/exhib http://www.callutheran.edu/BioDev/omm/jmol/nucleosome/nucleosome.html http://www.molecularstation.com NUCLEOSOME with DNA http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/dissertationen/seitz-stefanie-2004-10-20/HTML/chapter1.html http://www.callutheran.edu/BioDev/omm/jmol/nucleosome/nucleosome.html#top H1 histone Hierarchy of DNA packaging DNA double helix 2 nm thickness beads on a string 10 - 11 nm packed nucleosome fiber 30 nm looped domains 300 nm condensed loops 700 nm metaphase chromosome 1400 nm 11.5 p.289 http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/dna/animations.html http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/media/DNAi_packaging_vo2-sm.mov Eukaryotic chromosome Euchromatin undergoes normal process of condensation and decondensation Heterochromatin remains in condensed state throughout the cell cycle constitutive facultative G-banding (Gemsa stain ) Dark=hetrerochromatin Light-euchromatin http://www.nature.com/nrn/journal/v6/n2/fig_tab/nrn1604_F2.html Histones in nucleosome control packing http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/dissertationen/seitz-stefanie-2004-10-20/HTML/chapter1.html Possible modifications of amino acids at the example of the N-terminus of histone H3 from S. cerevisiae. A=acetylation, M=methylation, P=phosphorylation Nucleosomes and DNA have a strong...
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Chrosome structure and transposable elements lecture 13 and 14

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