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Unformatted text preview: Asian and Filipino Americans: Brief Historical Notes 1500s through the 1700s - Filipino mariners reached Mexico and the California coast aboard Spanish galleons built and equipped in the Manila region for global exploration and trade. Present-day Americans of Filipino and Chinese descent in the Louisiana and Gulf Coast area trace their earliest immigrant heritage back to Manila Galleon seafarers. 1587 - "Luzones Indios", natives of the Philippines, were among the expeditionary force set ashore at Morro Bay, California on October 18, 1587. They were crew of the Nuestra Senora de Esperanza under Capt. Pedro de Unamuno. 1763 - "Manilamen", escaped galleon crew, establish the village of St. Malo on Lake Borgne near New Orleans as the earliest known settlement by Filipinos in North America. 1781 - Antonio Miranda, a Filipino member of Spanish expeditionary force exploring California from Mexico, was among the party that established the Pueblo de Nuestra Senora de los Angeles, the City of Los Angeles. 1814 - Filipinos fought under pirate/privateer Jean Lafitte with U.S. forces at the Battle of New Orleans. 1830s - Chinese began working in small numbers on American-owned sugar plantations in Hawaii. Chinese sailors and peddlers were noticed in New York. 1848 - The traditional reference date for the arrival of the first offically recorded Chinese immigrants at the start of the California Gold Rush. 1850 - The Anti-Foreign Miner's License law established a tax that was selectively enforced against Chinese goldminers. 1852 - Chinese were brought to Hawaii in large numbers as field-workers on American-owned sugar plantations. 1854 - People v. Hall : the California Supreme Court decided that Chinese could not testify against any "white man", even if the Chinese were victims or witnesses to serious crimes, i.e., murder, arson or robbery. 1854 - The original International Hotel was built on Jackson Street. 1858 - California passed an anti-Chinese and anti-"Mongolian" immigration law that was a violation of Congressional powers under the U.S. Constitution but was briefly enforced against Asians. ("Mongolian" was a generic reference to Asians commonly used in laws and political discussion through the 19th and early 20th centuries which was then eventually replaced by the use of the term "oriental".) 1865 - The Central Pacific Railroad Co. began recruitment of Chinese laborers, called "coolies" by whites. An estimated 12,000 to 15,000 Chinese laborers built the western half of the Transcontinental Railway, over and through the Sierra and Rocky Mountains, during a four year period. 1867 - Two thousand Chinese railroad workers struck for two weeks in protest against extremely harsh working conditions. 1868 - Japanese were brought over as contract laborers to Hawaii. The U.S. and China signed the Burlingame Treaty which guaranteed mutual free emigration and equal treatment for the people of each signator nation....
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This document was uploaded on 11/04/2011 for the course ETHS 220 at S.F. State.
- Fall '11