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Register your iclicker • The following 10 iclickers are not registered yet 1032F4D6, 1056ABED, 10AF72CD, 15B68625, 19513179, A17BFA2, A27DFF2, AADF255, BAB44E4, FF1CD33 1 • Check if the one is yours and register asap
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Chapter 24 Electric Potential Define the electric potential ( symbol V ) of an electric field • Calculate – Potential V if we know the corresponding electric field E – Electric field E if we know the corresponding potential V Determine potential V generated by – Point charge 2 – Discreet charge distribution – Continuous charge distribution Determine electric potential energy U of a system of charges Define the notion of an equipotential surface Explore the geometric relationship between equipotential surfaces and electric field lines Explore the potential of a charged isolated conductor
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We can assign an electric potential energy U to a system of two or more charged particles exerting electrostatic forces on each other If the system changes its configuration from an initial state i to a different final state f , the electrostatic force does work W on the particles . The resulting change in the potential energy of the system is W U U U i f - = - = Electric Potential Energy 3 It has been found out experimentally that an electric force is a conservative force As for all conservative forces, the work done by the electrostatic force is path independent : – Suppose a charged particle moves from point i to point f while an electrostatic force acts on it. The work done by the force on the particle is the same for all paths between points i and f
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As a reference configuration , we usually take the configuration when all particles are separated at infinitely large distances from one another. The corresponding reference potential energy is set to zero Suppose that several charged particles come closer from initially infinite separations ( state i ) to form a system of neighboring particles ( state f ). W is the work done by the electrostatic forces between the particles during the move in from infinity. Then we can write Electric Potential Energy (cont’d) 4 W U U i f - = - - = - W U 0 - = W U Thus the potential energy U of the system is negative of the work done by the electrostatic force to bring the system of particles from infinity (reference configuration) to the current configuration It is important to remember that an electric potential energy is associated with a system of particles as a whole
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Introduce potential energy per unit charge, called electric potential q U V = Electric potential is a scalar quantity . It is a characteristic of the electric field at a given point Electric potential difference V between any two points i and f in an electric field is: U U U Electric Potential barb2left Independent of charge 5 Since U = W , the formula becomes q q q V V V i f i f = - = - = q W V - = The potential difference between two points is the negative of the work done by the electrostatic force to move a unit charge from one point to the other
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