01-OUTLINE - Chapter 1: From the Origins of Agriculture to...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1: From the Origins of Agriculture to the First River Valley Civilizations, 8000 to 500 BCE INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter students should: Be able to describe the ways in which early humans adapted to different environments and be able to differentiate between hunter- gatherer and food-producing economies. Be able to analyze the environmental causes and effects of the transition from hunter-gatherer to food-producing economies. Be able to describe the relationship between the development of different economies (hunter-gatherer, agricultural, and pastoral) and their different social and cultural characteristics. Be able to explain how the earliest civilizations developed in challenging environments. Be able to draw connections between the organization of labor resources in early civilizations and their social and political structures. Be able to assess the impact of new technologies on the social development of early civilizations. Be able to trace the development of social and political institutions and religious beliefs in river valley civilizations and understand the relationship between these institutions and beliefs and the natural environment. MAPS I. History and Culture in the Ice Age A. Food Gathering and Stone Tools 1. The period known as the Stone Age lasted from 2 million years ago to 4 thousand years ago. It is subdivided into the Paleolithic (Old Stone Ageto 10,000 years ago) and the Neolithic (New Stone Age). 2. The Paleolithic age is characterized by the production of stone tools that were used in scavenging meat from dead animals and later in hunting. Homo sapiens proved to be particularly good hunters and may have caused or helped to cause the extinction of mastodons and mammoths about 11,000 years ago. 3. The diet of Stone Age people probably consisted more of foraged vegetable foods than of meat. Human use of fire can be traced back to 1 to 1.5 million years ago, but conclusive evidence of cooking (in the form of clay pots) can only be found as far back as 12,500 years ago. B. Gender Roles and Social Life 1. The slow maturation rate of human infants and the ability of adult humans to mate at any time of the year are thought to be causes of the development of the two-parent family that is one of the characteristics of the hominids. 2. Researchers believe that in Ice Age society women would have been responsible for gathering, cooking, and child-care, while men would have been responsible for hunting. The hunter-gatherers probably lived in fairly small groups and migrated regularly in order to follow game animals and to take advantage of seasonal variations in the ripening of foraged foods....
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This note was uploaded on 11/04/2011 for the course WORLD 101 taught by Professor Losa during the Spring '11 term at City College of San Francisco.

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01-OUTLINE - Chapter 1: From the Origins of Agriculture to...

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