02-OUTLINE - CHAPTER 2 New Civilizations in the Eastern and...

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CHAPTER 2: New Civilizations in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, 2200—250 B . C . E . INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter students should: 1. Be able to describe the response of the peoples of early China, Nubia, Celtic Europe, and Central America to the challenges of their environments. 2. Be able to explain the basis of power, status, and wealth in each of the societies treated in this chapter. 3. Be able to discuss the influence of older cultural centers on the development of Nubian and Celtic society. 4. Be able to analyze change over time in China, Nubia, Celtic Europe, and Central America, in terms of the significance of their varying environments, the roles of bronze, horses, and chariots, and the phenomenon of interdependence. MAPS
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CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Early China, ca. 2000–221 B.C.E. A. Geography and Resources 1. China is divided into two major geographical regions: the steppe, desert, and high plateau west and northwest; and the eastern zone, more suitable for settled agriculture. 2. The eastern zone is subdivided into two areas: north and south. The northern area includes the Yellow River Valley and has a dry, cold climate; the southern area includes the Yangzi Valley, has plentiful rainfall, and is relatively warm. 3. China’s natural resources include timber, stone, and metals. The loess soil and cool climate of the north are suitable for growing millet; rice may be cultivated in the warmer and rainier south. 4. Agriculture in this region required the coordinated effort of large numbers of people. B. The Shang Period, ca. 1750–1027 B.C.E. 1. Pre-Shang China was a land of Neolithic communities. Pigs, chickens, and millet were domesticated, silk textiles developed, and bronze metallurgy begun (ca. 2000 B.C.E.) 2. There are no contemporary documents to confirm the existence of the legendary Xia dynasty. Later documents concerning the Xia may be referring to one of the late Neolithic societies of the Yellow River Valley.
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3. The Shang dynasty had its origins in the Yellow River Valley and later expanded to include territory from Mongolia to Gansu and south to the Yangzi Valley. The Shang kings ruled directly over the core area of their kingdom and exercised indirect rule over peripheral areas. 4.
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This note was uploaded on 11/04/2011 for the course WORLD 101 taught by Professor Losa during the Spring '11 term at City College of San Francisco.

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02-OUTLINE - CHAPTER 2 New Civilizations in the Eastern and...

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