04-OUTLINE - CHAPTER 4: Greece and Iran, 100030 B.C.E....

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CHAPTER 4: Greece and Iran, 1000–30 B.C.E. INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter students should: Understand the historical development and the economic basis of the Persian Empire and be able to discuss the religious and political justifications for kingship and the mechanisms that the Persians developed for successful administration of their extensive and diverse empire. Understand the geographical, economic, and technological bases and the social structure of Archaic and classical Greek civilization and be able to analyze the causes of the political evolution that led to the polis and democracy. Understand the causes and effects of the struggle between Persia and Greece. Be able to analyze the significance and both the short- and long-term influence of Persian and Greek culture in the Mediterranean and western Asian worlds. MAPS
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CHAPTER OUTLINE 1) Ancient Iran, 1000–30 B.C.E. i) Geography and Resources (1) Iran’s location, bounded by mountains, deserts, and the Persian Gulf, left it open to attack from Central Asian nomads. The fundamental topographical features included high mountains on the edges, salt deserts in the interior, and a sloping plateau crossed by mountain streams. (2) Iran had limited natural resources. Water was relatively scarce, and Iran’s environment could only support a limited population. Because of the heat, irrigation networks had to use underground tunnels. Construction and maintenance of underground irrigation networks was labor-intensive and advanced under a strong central authority. Iran had mineral resources—copper, tin, iron, gold, and silver—and plentiful timber. ii) The Rise of the Persian Empire (1) The Median kingdom in northwestern Iran helped to destroy the Assyrian Empire in the late seventh century B.C.E. The Persian Achaemenid dynasty was related to the Median court by marriage, and in 550 B.C.E., Cyrus overthrew the Median king and built a larger Persian empire that included Medes and Persians. (2) The Persian Empire was built up by a series of three kings: Cyrus, Cambyses, and Darius I. Cyrus captured the kingdom of Lydia (546 B.C.E.), thus bringing all of Anatolia under his control, and later took Mesopotamia (539 B.C.E.) (3) Cambyses defeated Egypt and sent expeditions to Nubia and Libya. Under Darius I, the role of the Medes declined as the Persians asserted greater dominance. Darius extended the empire east to the Indus valley and west to European Thrace. iii) Imperial Organization and Ideology (1) From Darius on, the empire was divided into twenty provinces; a satrap who was related or connected to the royal court administered each province. The position of satrap tended to become hereditary. Satraps in distant provinces had considerable autonomy. (2)
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04-OUTLINE - CHAPTER 4: Greece and Iran, 100030 B.C.E....

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