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07-OUTLINE - CHAPTER 7 Networks of Communication and...

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CHAPTER 7: Networks of Communication and Exchange, 300 B . C . E .–1100 C . E . INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter students should: Be able to identify the locations and to describe the participants and the major trade goods of the Silk Road, the Indian Ocean, and the trans-Saharan trade routes. Be able to analyze the relationship between environment, transportation technology, and trade along the Silk Road, Indian Ocean, and trans-Saharan trade routes. Be able to discuss the causes and the patterns of the spread of Buddhism and Christianity. MAPS
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INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES I. The Silk Road A. Origins and Operations 1. The Silk Road was an overland route that linked China to the Mediterranean world via Mesopotamia, Iran, and Central Asia. There were two periods of heavy use of the Silk Road: (1) 150 B . C . E .–907 C . E . and (2) the thirteenth through seventeenth centuries C . E . 2. The origins of the Silk Road trade may be located in the occasional trading of Central Asian nomads. Regular, large-scale trade was fostered by the Chinese demand for western products (particularly horses) and by the Parthian state in northeastern Iran and its control of the markets in Mesopotamia. 3. In addition to horses, China imported alfalfa, grapes, and a variety of other new crops as well as medicinal products, metals, and precious stones. China exported peaches and apricots, spices, and manufactured goods including silk, pottery, and paper. B. The Impact of the Silk Road Trade 1. Turkic nomads, who became the dominant pastoralist group in Central Asia, benefited from the trade. Their elites constructed houses, lived settled lives, and became interested in foreign religions including Christianity, Manicheanism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and (eventually) Islam. 2. Central Asian military technologies, particularly the stirrup, were exported both east and west, with significant consequences for the conduct of war. C. The Indian Ocean Maritime System 1. The Indian Ocean maritime system linked the lands bordering the Indian Ocean basin and the South China Sea. Trade took place in three distinct regions: (1) the South China Sea, dominated by Chinese and Malays; (2) Southeast Asia to the east coast of India, dominated by Malays and Indians; and (3) the west coast of India to the Persian Gulf and East Africa, dominated by Persians and Arabs. 2. Trade in the Indian Ocean was made possible by and followed the patterns of the seasonal changes in the monsoon winds. 3. Sailing technology unique to the Indian Ocean system included the lateen sail and a shipbuilding technique that involved piercing the planks, tying them together, and caulking them.
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4. Because the distances traveled were longer than in the Mediterranean, traders in the Indian Ocean system seldom retained political ties to their homelands, and war between the various lands participating in the trade was rare.
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