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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER
8:
THE
RISE
OF
ISLAM,
200–1200
CE
 
 INSTRUCTIONAL
OBJECTIVES
 AFTER
STUDYING
THIS
CHAPTER
STUDENTS
SHOULD:
 1 .
 Understand
how
Byzantine
and
especially
Sasanid
imperial
institutions
laid
the
foundations
for
the
Islamic
state.
 2 .
 Be
familiar
with
the
story
of
the
life
of
Muhammad
and
the
development
of
the
religion
of
Islam,
the
umma,
and
the
three
branches
of
Islam
(Sunni,
 Shiite,
and
Kharijite).
 3 .
 Be
able
to
identify
and
to
analyze
the
rise
and
the
decline
of
the
Umayyad
and
the
Abbasid
Caliphates.
 4 .
 Be
familiar
with
the
characteristics
of
Islamic
civilization
including
the
Shari’a,
the
role
of
cities
in
Islam,
intellectual
life,
and
the
roles
of
women
and
 slaves.
 
 I .
 II.
 III.
 The
Sasanid
Empire,
224–651
(This
section
appears
in
Chapter
7)
 A .
 Politics
and
Society
 1 .
 The
Sasanid
kingdom
was
established
in
224
and
controlled
the
areas
of
Iran
and
Mesopotamia.
The
Sasanids
confronted
Arab
 pastoralists
on
their
Euphrates
border
and
the
Byzantine
Empire
on
the
west.
Relations
with
the
Byzantines
alternated
between
war
and
 peaceful
trading
relationships.
In
times
of
peace,
the
Byzantine
cities
of
Syria
and
the
Arab
nomads
who
guided
caravans
between
the
 Sasanid
and
Byzantine
Empires
all
flourished
on
trade.
Arabs
also
benefited
from
the
invention
of
the
camel
saddle,
which
allowed
them
 to
take
control
of
the
caravan
trade.
 2 .
 The
Iranian
hinterland
was
ruled
by
a
largely
autonomous
local
aristocracy
that
did
not,
however,
pose
a
threat
to
the
stability
of
the
 Sasanid
Empire.
 3 .
 The
Silk
Road
brought
new
products
to
the
Sasanid
Empire,
including
a
number
of
crops
from
India
and
China.
 B .
 Religion
and
Empire
 1 .
 The
Sasanid
Empire
made
Zoroastrianism
its
official
religion.
The
Byzantine
Empire
made
Christianity
its
official
religion.
Both
 Zoroastrianism
and
Christianity
were
intolerant
of
other
religions.
State
sponsorship
of
Zoroastrianism
and
Christianity
set
a
precedent
 for
the
link
that
developed
between
the
Islamic
religion
and
the
Islamic
state.
 2 .
 The
Byzantine
and
Sasanid
Empires
were
characterized
by
state
involvement
in
theological
struggles.
The
Byzantine
Empire
went
to
war
 with
the
Sasanids
over
the
latter’s
persecution
of
Christians,
but
the
Byzantine
emperors
and
bishops
themselves
purged
Christianity
of
 beliefs
that
they
considered
heretical,
such
as
the
Monophysite
doctrine
and
Nestorianism.
In
the
third
century
Mani
of
Mesopotamia
 founded
a
religion
whose
beliefs
centered
around
the
struggle
between
Good
and
Evil.
Mani
was
killed
by
the
Sasanid
shah,
but
 Manichaeism
spread
widely
in
Central
Asia.
Arabs
had
some
awareness
of
these
religious
conflicts
and
knew
about
Christianity.
 3 .
 During
this
period,
religion
had
replaced
citizenship,
language,
and
ethnicity
as
the
paramount
factor
in
people’s
identity.
 The
Origins
of
Islam
 A .
 The
Arabian
Peninsula
Before
Muhammad
 1 .
 Most
Arabs
were
settled
people.
Nomads
were
a
minority,
but
they
were
important
in
the
caravan
trade
that
linked
Yemen
to
 Mesopotamia
and
the
Mediterranean.
This
caravan
trade
gave
rise
to
and
supported
the
merchants
of
caravan
cities
such
as
Petra
and
 Palmyra.
It
also
brought
Arabs
into
contact
with
the
Byzantine
and
Sasanid
civilizations.
 2 .
 The
nomads
were
polytheists
who
worshiped
natural
forces
and
celestial
bodies,
but
they
were
also
familiar
with
other
religions
 including
Christianity.
 3 .
 Mecca
was
a
caravan
city
between
Yemen
and
Syria.
Mecca
was
also
a
cult
center
that
attracted
nomads
to
worship
the
idols
enshrined
 in
a
small
cubical
shrine
called
the
Ka’ba.
 B .
 Muhammad
in
Mecca
 1 .
 Muhammad
was
born
in
Mecca,
grew
up
as
an
orphan,
and
then
got
involved
in
the
caravan
trade.
In
610
he
began
receiving
revelations
 that
he
concluded
were
the
words
of
the
one
god,
Allah.
Others
in
his
community
believed
that
he
might
be
possessed
by
a
spirit.
 2 .
 The
message
of
Muhammad’s
revelations
was
that
there
is
one
god,
Allah,
and
that
all
people
ought
to
submit
to
him.
At
the
final
 judgment,
those
who
had
submitted
to
Allah
would
go
to
paradise;
those
who
had
not,
to
hell.
Muhammad’s
revelations
were
considered
 to
be
the
final
revelations,
following
and
superceding
the
earlier
revelations
of
God
to
Noah,
Moses,
and
Jesus.
 C .
 The
Formation
of
the
Umma
 1 .
 Muhammad
and
his
followers
fled
from
Mecca
to
Medina
in
622.
In
Medina,
Muhammad’s
Meccan
followers
and
converts
from
Medina
 formed
a
single
community
of
believers,
the
umma.
 2 .
 During
the
last
decade
of
Muhammad’s
life
the
umma
in
Medina
developed
into
the
core
of
the
Islamic
state
that
would
later
expand
to
 include
all
of
Arabia
and
lands
beyond
in
Africa,
Europe,
the
Middle
East
and
Central
Asia.
 3 .
 Muhammad’s
father‐in‐law
Abu
Bakr
took
over
leadership
of
the
umma
as
the
successor
(caliph)
of
Muhammad.
Abu
Bakr
faced
two
 main
tasks:
standardization
of
the
Islamic
religion
and
consolidation
of
the
Islamic
state.
Abu
Bakr
successfully
re‐established
Muslim
 authority
over
the
Arabs
and
oversaw
the
compilation
and
organization
of
the
Quran
in
book
form.
 4 .
 Disagreements
over
the
question
of
succession
to
the
caliphate
emerged
following
the
assassination
of
the
third
caliph,
Uthman.
A
civil
 war
was
fought
between
those
who
supported
keeping
the
caliphate
in
Uthman’s
clan
(the
Ummaya)
and
those
who
supported
the
claim
 of
Muhammad’s
first
cousin
and
son‐in‐law
Ali.
The
Umayya
forces
won
and
established
the
Umayyad
Caliphate
in
661.
 5 .
 These
disagreements
led
to
the
development
of
three
rival
sects
in
the
Muslim
community.
The
Shi’ites
supported
Ali’s
claim
to
the
 caliphate
and
believed
that
the
position
of
caliph
rightly
belonged
to
the
descendants
of
Ali.
Those
known
as
the
Sunnis
believed
that
the
 first
three
caliphs
had
been
correctly
chosen
and
supported
the
Umayyad
Caliphate.
The
most
militant
followers
of
Ali
formed
the
 Kharijite
(rebel)
sects.
Most
of
the
800
million
Muslims
of
today
are
either
Sunnis
or
Shi’ites.
 The
Rise
and
Fall
of
the
Caliphate,
632–1258
 A .
 The
Islamic
Conquests,
634–711
 1 .
 The
Islamic
conquests
of
areas
outside
Arabia
began
in
the
seventh
century.
In
the
first
wave
of
conquest,
the
Arabs
took
Syria,
Egypt,
 and
the
Sasanid
Empire.
In
the
late
seventh
and
early
eighth
centuries,
Islamic
forces
took
Tunisia,
Spain,
Algeria,
Morocco,
and
Sind.

 2 .
 Common
explanations
for
the
rapidity
of
the
Muslim
advance
include
lust
for
booty,
religious
fanaticism,
and
the
weakness
of
the
foes
of
 Islam.
None
of
these
explanations
has
a
strong
basis
in
fact.
The
most
convincing
explanation
finds
the
causes
of
Muslim
expansion
in
the
 talent
of
the
Muslim
leaders
and
the
structure
of
Arab
society.
 3 .
 IV.
 During
the
period
of
expansion
the
Arab
forces
were
organized
into
regular,
paid
armies
and
kept
in
military
camps
and
garrison
towns
 so
that
they
did
not
overrun
the
countryside.
The
Arab
Muslims
became
minority
rulers,
thinly
spread
over
non‐Muslim
societies
that
 they
dominated
and
taxed,
but
did
not
try
to
convert.
 B .
 The
Umayyad
and
Early
Abbasid
Caliphates,
661–850

 1 .
 The
Umayyads
ruled
an
Arab
empire,
not
a
Muslim
empire.
They
administered
their
territory
through
the
established
Sasanid
and
 Byzantine
apparatus,
gradually
bringing
in
Muslim
bureaucrats
and
the
Arabic
language.
Rebellions
overthrew
the
Umayyads
in
750;
 one
branch
of
the
family,
however,
remained
in
power
in
Spain.
 2 .
 Upon
the
fall
of
the
Umayyads
the
family
of
Abbas—an
uncle
of
Muhammad—took
over
and
established
the
Abbasid
Caliphate.
The
 Abbasids,
who
held
the
caliphate
until
1258,
provided
renewed
religious
leadership,
which
they
combined
with
a
style
of
rulership
and
 royal
ceremony
derived
from
the
Sasanids.
 3 .
 Literature
and
learning,
including
the
translation
of
Greek
texts
and
secular
Arab
poetry,
thrived
under
the
Abbasids.
Baghdad
was
a
 center
of
Abbasid
culture;
other
areas
shared
in
this
culture
to
varying
extents.
The
Abbasid
period
also
saw
an
acceleration
of
the
rate
of
 conversion
of
non‐Muslim
subjects
to
Islam
in
the
ninth
century.
 C .
 Political
Fragmentation,
850–1050
 1 .
 Abbasid
power
began
to
decline
in
the
second
half
of
the
ninth
century
as
the
caliphs
found
it
impossible
to
maintain
control
over
their
 vast
territory.
One
factor
in
the
decline
of
Abbasid
power
was
the
difficulty
of
transportation
and
communications.
Another
factor
was
 the
dissatisfaction
of
the
non‐Muslim
provincial
populations
with
a
political
and
economic
system
that
was
centered
on
Baghdad.
In
the
 ninth
century
local
revolts
carved
the
Abbasid
realm
into
smaller
Muslim
states
that
did
not
pay
taxes
or
homage
to
the
caliphs
in
 Baghdad.
 2 .
 In
Baghdad,
the
caliphs
had
come
to
rely
on
Turkish
slave
troops
known
as
Mamluks.
In
the
late
ninth
century,
when
they
were
not
paid
 properly,
the
mamluks
took
control
of
the
caliphate,
choosing
whomever
they
wanted
to
be
caliph
and
dominating
the
government.

 Then
in
945,
the
caliphate
fell
under
the
control
of
the
Iranian
Shi’ite
Buyids.
As
the
Abbasid
Caliphate
declined,
various
provincial
 regimes
rose
to
power.
These
included
the
Samanids
in
Bukhara
and
the
Fatimids
in
Egypt.
 3 .
 In
Spain,
the
Umayyads
held
power
over
a
society
in
which
Islamic,
Roman,
German,
and
Jewish
cultures
combined
to
form
a
unique
 Iberian
variant
of
Islamic
civilization.
Muslim
Spain
saw
substantial
urbanization,
the
introduction
of
citrus
crops,
a
diverse
irrigated
 agricultural
sector,
and
a
florescence
of
Muslim
and
Jewish
intellectual
activity.
 4 .
 Underlying
the
political
diversity
of
the
fragmented
Muslim
world
was
a
strong
sense
of
religious
identity
preserved
by
the
religious
 scholars—the
ulama.
 D .
 Assault
From
Within
and
Without,
1050–1258
 1 .
 In
Central
Asia
and
the
Middle
East
another
nomad
group,
the
Seljuk
Turks,
took
advantage
of
the
decline
of
the
Abbasids
to
establish
the
 Suljuk
Sultanate.
The
Seljuks
ruled
a
territory
stretching
from
Afghanistan
to
Baghdad
and
took
Anatolia
from
the
Byzantines
in
1071.
 2 .
 Turkish
depredations,
the
deterioration
of
the
Tigris‐Euphrates
irrigation
system,
insufficient
revenue,
and
insufficient
food
resources
 led
to
the
collapse
of
the
city
of
Baghdad.
 3 .
 The
Crusades
also
put
some
pressure
on
the
Islamic
lands,
but
the
Muslims
were
able
to
unite
under
Saladin
and
his
descendants
to
 drive
the
Christians
out.
However,
Saladin’s
descendants
were
not
able
to
restore
unity
and
order
to
the
Islamic
world,
which
was
hit
by
 another
Turkish
invasion
in
1250
and
by
the
Mongol
invasions
of
the
thirteenth
century.
 Islamic
Civilization
 A .
 Law
and
Dogma
 1 .
 Islamic
law—Shari’a—evolved
over
time
in
response
to
the
Muslim
community’s
need
for
a
legal
system.
The
most
important
source
of
 law
was
the
traditions
of
the
Prophet
(sunna)
as
revealed
in
reports
(hadith)
about
his
words
or
deeds.
 2 .
 Specialists
on
Islamic
law
collected
and
edited
tens
of
thousands
of
hadith,
discarding
those
that
seemed
to
be
spurious
and
publishing
 the
others.
The
Shari’a,
developed
over
a
period
of
centuries,
held
that
all
Muslims
are
brothers
and
sisters
and
shared
the
same
moral
 values.
 B .
 Converts
and
Cities
 1 .
 Conversion
and
urbanization
were
related.
During
the
early
period
of
Islamic
expansion,
converts
to
Islam
needed
to
learn
about
their
 new
religion
and
found
that
the
best
way
to
do
so
was
to
move
to
the
wealthy,
expanding
urban
areas
where
the
Muslim
population
was
 concentrated.
Discrimination
in
their
native
rural
non‐Muslim
villages
also
spurred
new
converts
to
move
to
the
cities.
 2 .
 Urban
social
life
and
the
practice
of
Islam
itself
were
varied
because
the
Muslims
had
no
central
authority
to
prescribe
religious
dogma.
 The
growing
cities
provided
an
expanding
market
for
agricultural
and
manufactured
products
and
contributed
to
an
increase
in
trade.
 3 .
 In
medicine
and
astronomy,
Muslim
scholars
built
on
and
surpassed
the
work
of
the
Greek
and
Hellenistic
civilizations
and
developed
 skills
and
theories
far
more
sophisticated
than
those
of
Christian
Europe.
 C .
 Islam,
Women,
and
Slaves
 1 .
 Muslim
women
were
veiled
and
secluded
as
they
had
been
previously
in
the
Byzantine
and
the
Sasanid
Empires.
Women
could
be
 influential
in
the
family,
but
only
slave
women
could
have
a
public
role
or
appear
in
public
before
men.
 2 .
 Muslim
women
did
have
rights
under
Islamic
law.
These
rights
included
the
right
to
own
propertyand
to
retain
it
in
marriage,
the
right
 to
divorce,
to
remarry,
to
testify
in
court,
and
to
go
on
pilgrimage.
 3 .
 Stories
about
Muhammad’s
young
wife
A’isha
illustrate
what
Muslims
feared
most
about
women:
sexual
infidelity
and
meddling
in
 politics.
Muhammad’s
faithful
first
wife
Khadija
and
his
daughter
Fatima
are
held
up
as
models
of
female
propriety.
 4 .
 Islam
did
not
permit
homosexuality,
but
notable
Muslims
including
rulers
and
poets
advocated
the
practice
of
male
homosexuality.
 5 .
 Muslims
were
not
permitted
to
enslave
their
fellow
Muslims,
Jews,
Christians,
or
Zoroastrians
except
when
taken
as
prisoners
of
war.
 Muslims
could
and
did
hold
non‐Muslim
slaves,
but
the
status
of
slave
was
not
hereditary.
 D .
 The
Recentering
of
Islam
 1 .
 The
decline
of
the
caliphate
and
factionalism
within
the
ulama
deprived
Islam
of
a
religious
center.
During
the
twelfth
and
thirteenth
 centuries
two
new
sources
of
religious
authority
developed:
the
madrasas
(religious
colleges)
and
the
Sufi
brotherhoods.
 2 .
 Sufi
brotherhoods
were
mystic
fraternities
whose
members
sought
union
with
God
through
rituals
and
training.
The
early
Sufis
were
 mystics
who
went
into
ecstasies
and
expressed
their
ideas
in
poetry;
the
Sufi
brotherhoods
developed
into
more
prosaic
organizations
of
 Muslim
men.
 3 .
 Sufi
brotherhoods
provided
their
members
with
spiritual
guidance
and
rules
for
everyday
life.
The
brotherhoods
originated
in
the
urban
 areas
and
then
spread
to
the
countryside.
 ...
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