chapter 15 outline - CHAPTER14:TheLatinWest,12001500...

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CHAPTER 14: The Latin West, 1200–1500 INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter students should: 1. Be able to analyze the causes and consequences of Europe’s fourteenth-century demographic disaster. 2. Be able to describe and explain the significance in world history of technological development and urbanization in the Latin West in the later Middle Ages. 3. Understand the ways in which the intellectual developments of the later Middle Ages reflected Westerners’ views of themselves and of their relationship to the past. 4. Understand the ways in which the Hundred Years War and the emergence of the “new monarchies” laid the foundations for the modern European state system. CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Rural Growth and Crisis A. Peasants and Population 1. In 1200 C.E. most Europeans were peasants, bound to the land in serfdom and using inefficient agricultural practices. Fifteen to thirty such heavily taxed farming families supported each noble household. 2. Women labored in the fields with men but were subordinate to them. 3. Europe’s population more than doubled between 1000 and 1445. Population growth was accompanied by new agricultural technologies in northern Europe, including the vthree-field system and the cultivation of oats. 4. As population grew, people opened new land for cultivation, including land with poor soil and poor growing conditions. This caused a decline in average crop yields beginning around 1250. B. The Black Death and Social Change 1. The population pressure was eased by the Black Death (bubonic plague), which was brought from Kaffa to Italy and southern France in 1346. The plague ravaged Europe for two years and returned periodically in the late 1300s and 1400s, causing substantial decreases in population. 2. As a result of the plague, labor became more expensive in Western Europe. This gave rise to a series of peasant and worker uprisings, higher wages, and the end of serfdom. Serfdom in Eastern Europe grew extensively in the centuries after the Black Death. 3. Rural living standards improved, the period of apprenticeship for artisans was reduced, and per capita income rose. C. Mines and Mills 1. Between 1200 and 1500 Europeans invented and used a variety of mechanical devices including water wheels and windmills. Mills were expensive to build, but over time they brought great profits to their owners. 2. Industrial enterprises, including mining, ironworking, stone quarrying, and tanning, grew during these centuries. The results included both greater productivity and environmental damage including water pollution and deforestation. II. Urban Revival A. Trading Cities 1. Increases in trade and in manufacturing contributed to the growth of cities after 1200. The relationship between trade, manufacturing, and urbanization is demonstrated in the growth of the cities of northern Italy and in the urban areas of Champagne and Flanders. 2.
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chapter 15 outline - CHAPTER14:TheLatinWest,12001500...

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