02_lecture-akins020211 - Chemistry 10301, Spring 2011...

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1 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Chapter Chemistry 10301, Spring 2011 Instructor: Dr. Daniel L. Akins
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Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 2 2.1 The Atomic Theory 2.2 The Structure of the Atom Discovery of the Electron Radioactivity The Proton and the Nucleus Nuclear Model of the Atom The Neutron 2.3 Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Isotopes 2.4 The Periodic Table 2.5 The Atomic Mass Scale and Average Atomic Mass 2.6 Molecules and Molecular Compounds Molecules Molecular Formulas Naming Molecular Compounds Empirical Formulas 2.7 Ions and Ionic Compounds Atomic Ions Polyatomic Ions Formulas of Ionic Compounds Naming of Ionic Compounds Hydrates Familiar Inorganic Compounds
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The Atomic Theory In 1808, John Dalton formulated a precise definition of matter that we call atoms: 1) Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms. All atoms of a given element are identical. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements. 2) Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. In any given compound the same types of atoms are always present in the same relative numbers. 3) A chemical reaction rearranges atoms in chemical compounds; it does not create or destroy them. 2.1
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The Atomic Theory In the reaction below: All the oxygen molecules appear identical to one another (hypothesis 1). The compound CO 2 forms when each carbon atoms combines with two oxygen atoms (hypothesis 2). All atoms present before the reaction are also present after the reaction (hypothesis 3).
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The Atomic Theory According to Proust’s law of definite proportions, different samples of a given compound always contain the same elements in the same mass ratio. Sample Mass of O (g) Mass of C (g) Ratio (g O : g C) 123 g carbon dioxide 89.4 33.6 2.66:1 50.5 g carbon dioxide 36.7 13.8 2.66:1 88.6 g carbon dioxide 64.4 24.2 2.66:1
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The Atomic Theory According to the law of multiple proportions, if two elements can combine to form more than one compound with each other, the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other element are in ratios of small whole numbers. 1 2 = 1 2 = O to C ratio in CO O to C ratio in CO 2
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The Structure of the Atom Based on Dalton’s atomic theory, an atom is the basic unit of an element that can enter into a chemical combination. 2.2
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The Structure of the Atom When metal plates are connected to a high-voltage source, the negatively charged plate, or cathode , emits an invisible ray. The cathode ray is drawn to the anode. Cathode (-) Anode (+)
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The Structure of the Atom Cathode rays may be deflected by magnetic or electric fields. Particles are negatively charged and are known as electrons .
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The Structure of the Atom J. J. Thomson determined the charge to mass ratio of an electron: charge : mass = 1.76 × 10 8 C/g C stands for coulomb which is the derived SI unit for charge
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R. A. Millikan measured the charge of an electron with great precision. 19
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This note was uploaded on 11/04/2011 for the course WORLD 101 taught by Professor Losa during the Spring '11 term at City College of San Francisco.

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02_lecture-akins020211 - Chemistry 10301, Spring 2011...

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