04_lecture-mod-akins022411

04_lecture-mod-akins022411 - Chemistry 10301, Spring 2011...

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1 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Chapter Chemistry 10301, Spring 2011 Instructor: Dr. Daniel L. Akins 1
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Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 4 4.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes Strong Electrolytes and Weak Electrolytes 4.2 Precipitation Reactions Solubility Guidelines for Ionic Compounds in Water Molecular Equations Ionic Equations Net Ionic Equations 4.3 Acid-Base Reactions Strong Acids and Bases Brønsted Acids and Bases Acid-Base Neutralization 4.4 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Oxidation Numbers Oxidation of Metals in Aqueous Solutions Balancing Simple Redox Equations Other Types of Redox Reactions 2
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Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 4 4.5 Concentration of Solutions Molarity Dilution Solution Stoichiometry 4.6 Aqueous Reactions and Chemical Analysis Gravimetric Analysis Acid-Base Titrations 3
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General Properties of Aqueous Solutions A solution is a homogenous mixture of two or more substances. The substance present in the largest amount (moles) is referred to as the solvent . The other substances present are called the solutes . A substance that dissolves in a particular solvent is said to be soluble in that solvent. 4.1 4
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General Properties of Aqueous Solutions An electrolyte is a substance that dissolves in water to yield a solution that conducts electricity. An electrolyte undergoes dissociation and breaks apart into its constituent ions. NaCl( s ) Na+( aq ) + Cl–( aq ) H2O 5
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General Properties of Aqueous Solutions A non-electrolyte is a substance that dissolves in water to yield a solution that does not conduct electricity. The sucrose molecules remain intact upon dissolving. C12H22O11( s ) C12H22O11( a q ) H2O 6
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General Properties of Aqueous Solutions An electrolyte that dissociates completely is known as a strong electrolyte . Water soluble ionic compounds Strong Acids Strong Bases NaCl( s ) Na+( aq ) + Cl–( aq ) H2O HCl( g ) H+( aq ) + Cl–( aq ) H2O NaOH( s ) Na+( aq ) + OH–( aq ) H2O 7
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Aqueous Solutions 8
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General Properties of Aqueous Solutions A weak electrolyte is a compound that produces ions upon dissolving but exists in solution predominantly as molecules that are not ionized. Weak Acids Weak Bases HC2H3O2( l ) H+( aq ) + C2H3O2 ( aq ) NH3( g ) + H2O( l ) NH4( aq ) + OH–( aq ) + 9
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General Properties of Aqueous Solutions The double arrow, , denotes a reaction that occurs in both directions. When both the forward and reverse reactions occur at the same rate, the reaction is in a state of dynamic equilibrium. NH3( g ) + H2O( l ) NH4( aq ) + OH– ( aq ) + 10
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General Properties of Aqueous Solutions Classify each of the following as a nonelectrolyte, a weak electrolyte, or a strong electrolyte. Citric acid, H3C6H5O7 Potassium phosphate, K3PO4 Glucose, C6H12O6 Solution: H3C6H5O7: Citric acid is a weak acid and therefore a weak electrolyte. K3PO4: Potassium phosphate is a soluble salt that contains both cations and anions and is therefore a strong electrolyte.
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04_lecture-mod-akins022411 - Chemistry 10301, Spring 2011...

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