09_lecture-akinsSpring050411

09_lecture-akinsSpring050411 - Chemistry 10301, Spring 2011...

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1 9 Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories Chapter Chemistry 10301, Spring 2011 Instructor: Dr. Daniel L. Akins
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Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories 9 9.1 Molecular Geometry The VSEPR Model Electron-Domain Geometry and Molecular Geometry Deviation from Ideal Bond Angles Geometry of Molecules with More Than One Central Atom 9.2 Molecular Geometry and Polarity 9.3 Valence Bond Theory 9.4 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals Hybridization of s and p Orbitals Hybridization of s , p , and d Orbitals 9.5 Hybridization of Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds 9.6 Molecular Orbital Theory Bonding and Antibonding Molecular Orbitals σ Molecular Orbitals Bond Order π Molecular Orbitals Molecular Orbital Diagrams 9.7 Bonding Theories and Descriptions of Molecules with Delocalized Bonding
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Molecular Geometry Molecular shape can be predicted by using the valence-shell electron- pair repulsion (VSEPR) model. A is the central atom surrounded by x B atoms x can have integer values of 2 to 6. AB x 9.1
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Molecular Geometry The basis of the VSEPR model is that electrons repel each other. Electrons are found in various domains. 2 double bonds 2 electron domains (central atom) 1 single bond 1 double bond 1 lone pair 3 single bonds 1 lone pair 3 electron domains (central atom) 4 electron domains (central atom) Lone pairs Single bonds Double bonds Triple bonds
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Molecular Geometry The basis of the VSEPR model is that electrons repel each other. Electrons will arrange themselves to be as far apart as possible. Arrangements minimize repulsive interactions. 2 electron domains Linear 3 electron domains Trigonal planar
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Molecular Geometry 5 electron domains Trigonal bipyramidal 6 electron domains Octahedral 4 electron domains Tetrahedral
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Molecular Geometry The electron domain geometry is the arrangement of electron domains around the central atom. The molecular geometry is the arrangement of bonded atoms . In an AB x molecule, a bond angle is the angle between two adjacent A B bonds. Trigonal bipyramidal Octahedral Tetrahedral Linear Trigonal planar 180 120 109.5 90
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Molecular Geometry AB 5 molecules contain two different bond angles between adjacent bonds. Trigonal bipyramidal Axial positions; perpendicular to the trigonal plane Equatorial positions; three bonds arranged in a trigonal plane. 120 90
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Molecular Geometry When the central atom in an AB x molecule bears one or more lone pairs, the electron-domain geometry and the molecular geometry are no longer the same. O O O •• •• =
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Molecular Geometry
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Molecular Geometry
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Molecular Geometry The steps to determine the electron-domain and molecular geometries are as follows: Step 1: Draw the Lewis structure of the molecule or polyatomic ion. Step 2: Count the number of electron domains on the central atom.
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This note was uploaded on 11/04/2011 for the course WORLD 101 taught by Professor Losa during the Spring '11 term at City College of San Francisco.

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09_lecture-akinsSpring050411 - Chemistry 10301, Spring 2011...

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