11_lecture-akinsSpring051011

# 11_lecture-akinsSpring051011 - Chemistry 10301 Spring 2011...

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11 Gases Chapter 1 Chemistry 10301, Spring 2011 Instructor: Dr. Daniel L. Akins

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Gases 11 11.1 Properties of Gases Characteristics of Gases Gas Pressure: Definition and Units Calculation of Pressure Measurement of Pressure 11.2 The Gas Laws Boyle’s Law: The Pressure-Volume Relationship Charles’s and Gay-Lussac’s Law: The Temperature-Volume Relationship Avogadro’s Law: The Amount-Volume Relationship 11.3 The Ideal Gas Equation Deriving the Ideal Gas Equation from the Empirical Gas Laws Applications of the Ideal Gas Equation 11.4 Reactions with Gaseous Reactants and Products Calculating the Required Volume of a Gaseous Reactant Determining the Amount of Reactant Consumed Using Change in Pressure Predicting the Volume of a Gaseous Product 2
Gases 11 11.5 Gas Mixtures Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures Mole Fractions Using Partial Pressures to Solve Problems 11.6 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Application of the Gas Laws Molecular Speed Diffusion and Effusion 11.7 Deviation from Ideal Behavior Factors That Cause Deviation from Ideal Behavior The van der Waals Equation 3

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Properties of Gases Gases differ from solids and liquids in the following ways: 1) A sample of gas assumes both the shape and volume of the container. 2) Gases are compressible. 3) The densities of gases are much smaller than those of liquids and solids and are highly variable depending on temperature and pressure. 4) Gases form homogeneous mixtures (solutions) with one another in any proportion. 11.1 4
Properties of Gases Pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area: The SI unit of force is the newton (N) , where The SI unit of pressure is the pascal (Pa), defined as 1 newton per square meter. force pressure = area 1 N = 1 kg•m/s 2 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 5

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Properties of Gases 6
Properties of Gases A barometer is an instrument that is used to measure atmospheric pressure. Standard atmospheric pressure (1 atm) was originally defined as the pressure that would support a column of mercury exactly 760 mm high. P hdg h = height in m d = is the density in kg/m 3 g = is the gravitational constant (9.80665 m/s 2 ) 7

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Properties of Gases A barometer is an instrument that is used to measure atmospheric pressure. 1 atm* = 101,325 Pa = 760 mmHg* = 760 torr* = 1.01325 bar = 14.7 psi * Represents an exact number 8
Properties of Gases A manometer is a device used to measure pressures other than atmospheric pressure. 9

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The Gas Laws Boyle’s law states that the pressure of a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature is inversely proportional to the volume of the gas. 11.2 V P 1 (a) (b) (c) P (mmHg) 760 1520 2280 V (mL) 100 50 33 P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 at constant temperature 10
The Gas Laws Calculate the volume of a sample of gas at 5.75 atm if it occupies 5.14 L at 2.49 atm. (Assume constant temperature.) Solution: Step 1: Use the relationship below to solve for V 2 : P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 2.49 atm 5.14 L 2.26 L 5.75 atm PV V P 11 2 2 11

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The Gas Laws Charles’s and Gay-Lussac’s law, (or simply Charles’s Law ) states that the volume of a gas maintained at constant pressure is directly proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas.
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11_lecture-akinsSpring051011 - Chemistry 10301 Spring 2011...

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