Chapter 18-19 - Chapter 18 The High Renaissance in Rome...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 18 The High Renaissance in Rome Papal Patronage Rome at the Beginning of the 15th Century In the early 15th century, Rome seemed a pitiful place. Its population had shrunk from around 1 million in 100 CE to under 20,000 as the result of the Black Death The ancient Colosseum was now in the countryside, the Forum was a pasture for goats and cattle, and the aqueducts had collapsed The popes had even abandoned the city when in The High Renaissance After 1420 when Pope Martin V (papacy 1417-31) brought the papacy back to Rome for good, the popes were charged with the sacred duty of becoming great patrons of the arts and architecture of Rome Period from the time of Pope Sixtus IV (papacy 1471-84) until 1527 known as the High Renaissance. It was an era characterized by the self-confident humanism of its artists, an admiration for classical art and literature, and art and architecture that aspired to balance, order, and harmony of parts The work of the artistsMichelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo da Vinci, in particularcame to be considered the product of divinely inspired creative genius Pope Sixtus IV Of all the 15th-century popes, Sixtus IV was the most successful in fulfilling the Churchs mission to rebuild Rome He rebuilt the citys port, repaved its streets, built a new, functional bridge across the Tiber, restored the citys water supply, and renovated old churches and constructed new ones Melozzo da Forli, Sixtus IV, His Nephews, and Platina Detached fresco, 122 x 102 1480-81 The inscription at the bottom commends Sixtus for his accomplishments: Rome, once full of squalor, owes to you, Sixtus, its temples, foundling hospital, street squares, walks, bridges, the restoration of the Acqua Vergine at the Trevi Fountain, the port for sailors, the fortifications on the Vatican Hill, and now this celebrated library Donato Bramante Shortly after he was elected pope in 1503, Julius II asked the architect Donato Bramante to renovate the Vatican Palace and serve as chief architect to replace Saint Peters Basilica with a new church Bramante, who had worked with Leonardo da Vinci in Milan, earlier had designed a chapel, San Pietro in Rome, directly over what was revered as the site of Saint Peters martyrdom Bramantes Tempietto (Little Temple) is modeled after a classical temple Donato Bramante, Tempietto 1502 The 16 exterior columns are Doric, their shafts original ancient Roman granite columns The diameter of the shaft defines the entire plan. Each shaft is spaced four diameters from the next, and the colonnade they form is two diameters from the circular walls In its classical reference, its incorporation of original Roman columns into its architectural scheme, and in the mathematical orderliness of its parts, the Tempietto is the very embodiment of Italian humanist architecture in the High Renaissance Pantheon Bramantes Tempietto Bramante and the New Saint Peters...
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Chapter 18-19 - Chapter 18 The High Renaissance in Rome...

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