Nutri Sci; exam 2 review

Nutri Sci; exam 2 review - Jennifer Bishop March 6, 2008...

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Jennifer Bishop March 6, 2008 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE PROTEIN List three things you already know about protein 1. found in meat 2. found in eggs 3. helps to build muscle What is the nitrogen cycle? How does it link ecology and nutrition? Name a few of the paths nitrogen takes. 1. legumes pull nitrogen out of the air to make high-protein seeds; nitrogen in soil is also taken up by plants and made into protein; when plants die, the nitrogen goes back to the soil; animals also eat plants, and carnivores eat other animals, passing the nitrogen along until all beings die, returning the nitrogen to the soil/atmosphere 2. nitrogen is constantly being passed between beings, through food. 3. animal-animal, plant-animal, animal/plant-earth What is protein made of? How many amino acids are found in nature? 1. made of amino acids strung together 2. 20 amino acids are found in nature What chemical elements are found in all amino acids? Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen (sometimes Sulfur too) Which one is unique to amino acids amongst the macronutrients? Nitrogen – not found in fats or carbohydrates, only proteins What are the chemical groups on an amino acid? The AMINO group, and the ACID group There is also a SIDE CHAIN between them that differs between amino acids What do we call the bond that joins amino acids? The peptide bond What are peptides? What are they made from? Peptides are short chains made of amino acids Name a peptide.
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Insulin- has 51 amino acids How many amino acids can be found in a protein? 20 different kinds of amino acids make up proteins Protein itself is made up of thousands of amino acids How does the cell know the proper sequence of amino acids when making a protein? What do genes have to do with proteins? Why do we say "one gene, one protein?" Amino acids are placed into different sequences depending on the protein DNA carries sequences of proteins in the genes Each gene is a “recipe” for a protein One gene specifies one protein, or part of one protein How many proteins does the human body have? Tens of thousands of proteins What determines the structure of a protein? When DNA is copied, mRNA is produced, which is a copy of the information in DNA needed to make a protein The mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes to a ribosome Amino acids are carried to the ribosome by tRNA During translation, the information in mRNA is used to determine the number, kinds, and arrangement of amino acids in protein What forms may a protein molecule take? Muscles, connective tissue (ligaments, tendons, cartilage), bone mineral…. .basically anything that isn’t water or fat is protein What is denaturation? Changing the physical and chemical properties of a protein through the action of heat, acid, or
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Nutri Sci; exam 2 review - Jennifer Bishop March 6, 2008...

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