Topic 18, KO mice.ppt.edu

Topic 18, KO mice.ppt.edu - Topic 18 Knockout mice another...

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Unformatted text preview: Topic 18: Knockout mice: another application of homologous recombination Learning objectives • Be able to define the following terms: “knockout”, “conditional knockout”, & “knockin” mice, homozygote, heterozygote, selectable marker, chimera, neomycin resistance gene, exons, LoxP sites, Cre recombinase • Be able to explain why one would want to make these types of mice • Be able to explain/diagram the process of making a knockout/knockin mouse • Be able to explain how cre recombinase works to make a conditional knockout mouse • Be able to explain other practical applications of performing gene knockouts and knockins What is a knockout mouse? • A mouse strain that is genetically engineered to be lacking a specific gene (usually implies both copies of that gene) • What is a knockin mouse? – A mouse strain that is genetically engineered to have a NEW gene (that is normally lacking from that mouse strain) Why would you want to make a knockout mouse? • To study the function of a particular protein by producing an organism that is incapable of making that protein – Example: mutate Gene C (both alleles) from a mouse strain and determine what is different about the mouse as compared to a mouse strain which has Gene C intact Gene A Gene B Gene C Gene D Gene A Gene B Gene D • To produce animal models of human diseases – Can perform experimental treatments on animals in order to test it out before attempting on humans Why would you want to make a knockout mouse? Examples of knockout mice • SCID mice: lack a gene required for development of T & B lymphocytes (mice have no adaptive immune system) – Utility? Study mechanisms of human X-linked SCID disease and test out new ways to treat it Examples of knockout mice • Dystrophin mice: lack the gene that is mutated in humans with muscular dystrophy – Utility? Study how muscular dystrophy develops and test new mechanisms to treat or cure it Diversity of knockout mouse strains • There are literally hundreds of genes which have been knocked out in mice • Some knockouts happened on their own (SCID), most intentionally knocked out by scientists • You can also breed animals together in order to produce specific combinations of mutations to suit an area of interest Why would you want to make a knockin mouse?...
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Topic 18, KO mice.ppt.edu - Topic 18 Knockout mice another...

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