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Another important point - Another important point contra...

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Another important point contra the Adaptationist Program is that some traits may not be capable of achieving "maximal adaptedness" selection acts on the entire phenotype (debatable sensu units of selection; later) and phenotypes are compromises . Orians' central place foraging model: bird sits in middle of territory, may fly a certain route depending on availability and size of food items. Could design and optimal foraging strategy BUT, when the birds leaves nest, young are available for predation. Foraging strategy may not be the best foraging strategy, but the best compromise given predation risk. Green sea turtle : excellent swimmer; terrible digger (not designed for it) but must use flippers to dig hole for laying eggs. Flippers are not "optimal" for digging, but they work. Phenotypes as compromises underscores the importance of constraints . Evolution of one trait can be constrained due to correlation among traits: selection for body
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