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DISTINCTIVE PROPERTI18 - kidneys Multiplication in the...

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DISTINCTIVE PROPERTIES: Leptospira are thin, tightly coiled obligate aerobes that are highly motile. Their structure is similar to other spirochetes; a multilayered outer membrane, helical shaped peptidoglycan and flagella located in the periplasmic space. Their nutritional requirements include long-chain fatty acids and vitamins B1 and B12. There are more than 180 serotypes of Leptospira described. PATHOGENESIS: Mucosa and broken skin provide the entry for leptospires. The organisms produce a generalized infection with bacteremia (leptospiremic phase). Antibody is produced and the organisms then become localized primarily in the
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Unformatted text preview: kidneys. Multiplication in the kidneys leads to shedding in the urine (leptospiruric phase). This may persist for weeks, months or years. • Leptospira produce no known exo- or endotoxins. • Damage to the endothelial lining of capillaries and renal failure are the most common reasons for death. Occasionally the central nervous system may become involved. • The host immune response is probably responsible for lesions associated with late phase of disease. This is suggested because antibiotics are ineffective after symptoms have persisted for more than 4 days...
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