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EPIDEMIOLOGY - unsterile syringes transfusions etc A...

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EPIDEMIOLOGY: Infectious hepatitis (HAV) is endemic throughout the world, but the incidence is difficult to estimate because many cases are subclinical. HAV has a low mortality but patients may be incapacitated for several weeks. It is spread via the fecal-oral route, person to person and reflects conditions of poor sanitation and overcrowding. The virus may be shed in the feces but there is no carrier state or progression to chronic liver disease. Serum hepatitis (HBV, HCV) is generally passed via blood,
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Unformatted text preview: unsterile syringes, transfusions, etc. A carrier state can occur; in North America and Europe, the rate is about 0.1%. The rate increases to about 25-30% in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. DIAGNOSIS: • Clinical: Clinical diagnosis depends on the symptomology, which may include fever, malaise, headache, dark-colored urine and jaundice. • Laboratory: Serology is the best method for determining infection....
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