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HOST DEFENSE2 - antitoxin Ab(if the affected animal/human...

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HOST DEFENSES: Animals with high level phagocytic activity are more resistant. The capsule of B. anthracis is poorly immunogenic. DIAGNOSIS: Clinical: Cutaneous anthrax may be suspected upon observing the characteristic "black eschar" lesions. Inhalation and gastrointestinal anthrax are very difficult to diagnose based solely on clinical presentation. B. cereus food poisoning may present in two different forms: the vomiting form occurs within 1-6 hours (average 2 hours) following ingestion while the diarrheal form occurs from 8-12 hours (average 9 hours) following ingestion. Laboratory: A Gram stain of lesion material or feces can indicate the presence of these Gram-positive bacteria. Immunofluorescence techniques are also available . Specific immunity can result due to the production of
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Unformatted text preview: antitoxin Ab (if the affected animal/human survives). EPIDEMIOLOGY: • Bacillus species are worldwide soil saprophytes. The spores can survive 60 or more years under harsh environmental conditions. • Most human anthrax infections occur in persons whose occupation brings them in contact with infected animals or their products. For example, woolsorters and hidehandlers are the most frequently affected. • There are approximately 2000-5000 cases of human anthrax worldwide per year and 95% of these are of the cutaneous form. • B. cereus outbreaks occur sporadically. There have been outbreaks associated with Chinese restaurants due to the way in which their fried rice was prepared....
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